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1.0 Irl 






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tB53 Eoit Main Striat 

Rocrmtar. N.w Tori. 14609 USA 

(718) *82 - 0300 - Phone 

(716) 2S8 - 5989 - Fa. 

Alberta Indu^rial Development /"^^^l 



>a»<s'?T.yt_:,..._j : 

Opening Address 

Hon. n. P. Smith. 
Miniiter of Edueatior, Alberta Goranummt 

Chairmsii, Udieii snd gentlemen: At the ootMt I miut apologiic on 
b«half of the Lioutonant-Govtrnor of th« Prorhwo, who Intended bolns 
h«n thii morninir, but he unfortunately had to leave the Province fur a 
trip to Eaatam Canada; and I have aim to tender tne excuiea of the 
Premier. Mort people know that at the preient time there are rather 
'mportant negotiationB on at Edmonton in regard to the railway eonfer- 
ence. and tht Premier found it Impossible to leave the city today. Aa a 
result of this I have been asked to represent him here, and on behalf of 
the Province of Alberta to extend an official welcome to the visitors from 
the East, who are here to spy out the land and discover what opportunity 
there may be here for them and for the industries which the/ represent 

We all realise that at the present time there is a Kood deal of 
uncertainty In the business world, a good deal of unrest, quite a good 
deal of doubt as to what the fntura may have In stare. 

I must stey that the Province of Alberta Is anxious Indeed to develop 
here a well-rounded business community. We realise that no community 
can prosper If It pins Its faith on any one Industry, and for that reason, 
therefore, we are anxious to encourage a well-rounded Industrial develop- 
ment of our provinoe. 

We believe that capital and labor are necessary to each othyr. We 
deplore any oonfllct between the two, and believe, as all saae people must 
believe, that they are necessary one to the other; and that Uiere should 
be sesne way of reconciling their attitude and getting together tor the 
common good. 

We believe also that the city Is Just as necessary to the fafming 
community as the farming community is to the city. We believe that 
the city and the country an. the counterpart of each other, and that both 
are necessary. We believe also that the producer is not more aeeessary 
than the consumer. There must be a market for the goods produced. 
Now while that Is true, and I want to speak very frankly this morning— 
while that Is true, I would not like to have it understood that the Alberta 
Oovemment is anxious to induce manufacturing concerns or Industrial 
enterprises of any Und to come to this province unless they And condi- 
tions hers such as will give them ^ natural scope of development. We 
do not believe hi encouraging any Industries to come to this province 
that would have to draw their life through artiflcial lespiration. We 

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llw< Uun I* tM math nhi la llw Wait, tkal «• an Mac laadad 
kat yaapl* da aat laaHH that Alkarta la aa mfln la Hnif : tor 
mllM toat Mat to mw, atght handrad laUaa ktffli to Koutl^- an 
and tkaaa tklaca that an nportad, aad la a wr a«Mt«ralad i 
Mdjr '-*%■ adaffrtaaaa. Wa wan toM laat ycr, aad It i«a 
•nr »a ImhI, diat tkan waa a tanOla draaikt hi AlbatU aad 
aad haitflir aaythhw at ail «aaM ba Mnd; rat 
had alavad away, m had a halt rndt all ovar tha 
tha n »»l a aa aa a whala. W< wan taU but wialar that 
ham wan all ttardac 'or lank ol faad; tat tfti^ haa aana, wtth a 
' l il wi m d a»a lu| i Bn at of ino, aad tod tadajr Is ».'«Bttfal aad tha daaaar 
kaHcoaa. Tha fcaat aatWity today taOi as that tha latal km la this 
paaviaaa oaaaat oaaaad olght par coat. 

A awadlsh sattlar OBO day who eaana han with tha (varatMal Mty- 
ant fiasa la Us Docfcot mads a statams^; "I tmn kasa hsta t ww ti . 
yaan, aad I haw yot to ssa a total taOan of ofsp hi Alkaita. aapaalaliy 
hi pacta aadar paHienlar aafoitnaata i riartMliai " 

Aaathar thk* I weaM Ilka to say, awl Oat is, that this U aa aaaavd 
paovtaMk. It to a daahla-doek pnvlats. Vo hara tka sartoa waaMi, aad 
wa kavi a lawar dack that oVon still (r.rthor poosMUt;* <f gnat waailh. 
Wa kava laad fhnstat raoatry, asui wa kava a magattoaat Miyia« 
aanttnr. mna yoa ceau htk thnogh tha aa>tkan pmiiai at tha 
pra<*.aa y«B wO! flad abaadaat thnhar, killa, — Mttilna' Whaa aad 
s tr w ia s , aalhoMad watar for atock; yoa wOl ftad oa u d lthaM idaal, as*- 
diliMa kiat adaptad for tha TindBstlaa of battar aad chaan aad dairy 
pradaita. Wa haw a woadarfoi dalryiac eaaatqr. a ■wdiilkl stock 
oavatry, tka seaaaiy to m a piiit oa at , wowiacfal waaith of ftea io the 
aasti), ov hAss taam with Ssh; oaltaaltod watar powar, laria oaMtltias 
af tiaOa.- hi paRioM of tha pnriaca (Urn Chaltaaa says lut ta farnt 
tho caa), Jaat daaita* with tha appar dnk. 

la tha iawar daak a« han thd troatast aoal iaids (as wdb (whidi 
you saw at Modtalaa Hat). Wo haro oU pnaposta an anr tho prortaas. 
ttitt aoaa of tha praataot ooasona hi Aiaactoa an saUsliid that mat 
wa>lth la oO Usa han. Wo won >rat last yaar la Oa pndaaioa of osal 
anaatat aB tha pmia«oo of Caaada, Nan 8eotia hntaa pisiliiaiL 
pndaaad man aoai. Wa wan vary high upward la 4Ury iindaili. 'itl 
I waat thto mi; jtn ta rsaily boHon that this to snlblas ta fhli back 
apaa aa auttor what ii."taut>y yoa an •atorootod hi, aad shaaM caan cay 
Biaa to gin cantol eoasidoratioa k, fartbocii« that Ito of actfrlte Im 
-woks to fUlow. IIm baato of sacisas ia aay Uaa aiast ba tha danloa- 
sowt of tho nitaial wooa r aa s of tho pmtm» ia r ' 


Wr urc nut forKelllnir the iltvolopmepl of thcM rcsoumn In w 
•vliiratliinii] way. There l» ■ ilrrartmcnt of rewareh opiT«tln« at the 
I'nlvemli.v of Kilmonton to give ateuiale inrorroation an to the raM>unei> 
of the province, becauKr «e are not purely a farrilng country, and we 
look forMHnI to a very wide ilevelopment here. 

We have at prewnt atartetl ronKtruction on a uplaniliri educations! 
in.-.tltutl..n in thin city that will com a million dollani and will underuke 
wonit.ry eilucation; «o that you m the province Ik not con«ne<l alto 
irethrr to the material Hide. 

The«e Wentem Province, have taken very rdvanced lUpe 'n proRrm- 
i-tve Korial leKlalation. We have our Motheri.' Pension Act, Factory 
Acl», Child Ubor Uw», and a Kreal many acts of that nature that oeek 
to render aid Kocially. 

We have koo.1 whoolK In the province. No matter what town or city 
you pa.«« through, the flnett bulldlnx will be the Mhool, and while educa- 
tion doei. not r.>n»l^t of brick and morlar, it at lean l« a Kood Indication 
that we have the interuu of the chililren at heart, and we are doinx 
werythlnit po».4ible to fo«ter education alonn the beet and uneiit linen. 
We are Kivinit verj' .special attention to produclnx teachem. In onler to 
nriake xura of the claoo of teachers, we are not training any with Ioks 
than a full year of normal «hool traininu. We have adopte<l a policy— 
lendinit government mone- to pay for the normal training, ami Kive 
the teacher two year.i afUr Krwluution to repay, and we almost doubled 
the attendance at our normal whool laat year by that policy. 

We have undertaken a Rooti many other thince that have not been 
undertaken elsewhere, grlving help to country boyn and (irln by paying 
feed of non-re.ident high Mhool »tudent». Wo are getUng rexulte and 
while today there la a great shortage of teachers all over Canada, u'n'led 
States, and even in the Old Land, of this province today I may say this: 
We have more schools in operation, more qualified teachers in the prov- 
ince, more highly traine.1 teachers (12 months normal training) and 
fewer permits in the history of this province. So we must be bringing 

I have trieti to paint a very rapid sketch of what this province has 
to offer to the manufacturers of Canada. You an good citliens. We 
want more of you: I believe that you will make no miatake in coming 
to this province, growing up with the province, and I believe In the wonta 
of Robert Service: 

"Dreaming of " 

The Irrigation Problem in 
Western Canada 

". H. Petert. Ev\. 
Comntiukwer oT Irrigatioa, Depi. of Inieridr 

Mr. Chaimun: 

Tht addrei. whieh I .m goinif to rive you dMi. W , „ , „» |„„ 

"< .. Southern Irri».llon i. .1,0 . y.r, l,ve que.. ™ i^ 
Sou,hw..t.m S..l,„ but I will deal n,.i„,y wUhlJt. "^J 
o„l f^ word, l.t.r on .bout th. .i.t.r provi«,. 1 under.Und lh.1 
I .ni .ddr«.l„( . |.r,. number of vi.itor. from ,h. E..t. .nd .0 w'l 
m.k. r.f.,.n« to . number of f.cU which .r. .ommon knowW„ "„ 
re. dent,, out her. but which ra.y „o- be known to or .pprecLt^dljour 

Ih. hm.ted t,m. ...,gnrt I. me but will try .nd pl.ce before you in ^ 
bioid w«y tht eatr ial fntturn. 

Flrrt M to th :«.on why thi. p,p,r i. beinir re»d before .n In- 

I think th.t it ,. I uk. It u .„ .dn,itt«l fundamental that inZtrl^ 
il...lopment .hould not b. forc«J into .x:.t«.c.. nor can it J! Z^tli. 
«l economically unl... prec^Jed by , h..Uhy a;d fair" iumerTu r^ii 
poMafon 80 th 1. i. the link be. . the devel.nment Tf irj K™"n 
on the agricultural land, and the dev ,ment of induatrle. i„ he 'J^!! 
centre.. IrrigaUon farming will douole the population and;,':,;:^:: 
on the .p.cultur.1 Und. in comp.rl„„ with th. «^.lled dry farm ^ 
Ih,. may .ound ik. a very .w«pinR and poi.lbly ex.w.^tJd .tte' 
m.nt, but yet it i. a con.ervative .Utem.nt of f.ct .. .DoHed to «. .' 
1,|K. portion of Southern Albert, which I will de^ni:;, br!!,fy 1 .M^ 

I couW not attempt to foreca.t what the ultimate condition will 
be but at pr.«nt it ..generally con.idered that the de.irabl. holdTw 
fOT a dry farm n a half section or 320 acre, of l.nd It i. . ' 

setv.tiv. .Utement to th.t a quarter .ection or I60 .crlVJ""' 
I B.;ted land will produce a. much a. the double are, of drv U„ . "j 
ha,, in jjddltlon. other advanUge. .uch a. the ^.>ni.„VZTli ?e"r 
i hty and the auurance of a crop every year. 

I would like here to make an early explanation r»g.rdin, th. 
freedom which I .m going ,0 take in making point, .how^ the adv":! 

Ugea of irrigated land by comparing it with dry land. There Is no 
deiire at all on my part to "boost" irrigation by "knocking" the dry 
lands. Such a course would be worse than foolish, because we will 
later see that there is only a small percentage of the land in South- 
em Alberta that can be irrigated, and our great mainstay has always 
got to be the dry land. I take the dry lands as a basis of ready com- 
parison because irrigation is just a specialized line of general agricul- 
tural practice, and I feel that Southern Alberta dry lands have already 
established snch a record that none of the comparisons made can cast 
any reflection on them. Whether you think of one farm or the whole 
area, Uie comparatively amall area of irrigable land is going to be a 
very valuable adjunct to the large areas of dry land because they are 
going to establish hay fields and that is what Southern Alberta lacks rt 

You will understand that in dealing with so large a territory th." 
must be many local differences in climate, soil and general topogr \y, 
but speaking broadly, the area in which irrigation may ^ consid^/ed 
as neceaaary to pennanoit agricultural development in Alberta is the 
block contained between the International boundary and the north line 
of township 28 which runs east and west through Druiuheller and east 
of the weat boundary of range 25 which runs north and south through 
Macleod. From this there should be excepted the higher and rougher 
lands on the west slopes of the Cypress Hills which lie south of Medi- 
cine Hat This block is generally comprised of a great smooth treeless 
prairie suitable for the development of large projects and where all 
ordinary field crops can be successfully raised by irrigation. To the 
west of the line deocribed as the west boundary many small priv^ate 
schnnes have been developed, but these lands rising towards the foot- 
hills of the rookies are higher in elevation, rougher in general topo- 
graphy and more suited under irrigation to specializing in raising fodder 
crops only and the developing of stock or dairy farms. 

The great block as described contains ab'^ut fifteen millfon acres 
of land and the large centres to which it is tributory ar« Calgary, 
Medicine Hat, Lethbridge and Macleod. It is not to be understood that 
all of this acreage can be irrigated for such is not the case. Some of the 
land cannot be irrigated for physical reasons and the available water 
supply is another limiting factor. The mental picture to be gained of 
the ultimate development is rather of this great block generally de- 
veloped under dry farming method: but with large irrigated sections 
scattered through it not only creating areas of greater population and 
prodjcuon bat assuring to the whole an ample supply of fodder crops 
which cannot be grown on the dry lands. ' 

Within the block described, the C.P.R. constructed projects comprise 
743.000 actual irrigable acres. Under the partly constructed Canada 

Lttiid and Irrisation Company project, 203.000 acres. Comprebensive 
surveys executed by the Dominion Government bave determined that 
there is hi addition 600,000 acres which can be beneficially irrigated. 
The total of actual irrigable lands is 1,646,000 acre* which is only ten 
per cent of the whole block. Please note that I am not attempting 
to give you the total area that may be irrigated in AlberU some day 
but only the total of schemes now constructed and other areas which 
already have been actually surveyed. 

To give you an idea of the climatic and other general conditi<»u 
in the area described, the precipitation runs from 10 in. to 16 in. at 
against 25 in. to 40 in. in the settled parts of Ontario. The summer 
temperature is about 60° or 6° lower than central Ontario. The lands 
vary in altitude from about 2,600 ft. to 3,600 ft. One extraordinary 
featuz« which must not be overlooked is the Chinook winds. It is a 
matter of practical importance to note that the areas in the south 
country are relatively much drier than those in tiie north country having 
similar conditions of precipitation, due to the effect of the dry, warm 
Chinook winds which blow from the south west. 

I would like at this point to bring to attention the difFerenee as 
regards agricultural conditions which exist between northern and south- 
em Alberta. If you draw an east and west line through Red Deer town 
you have approximately the dividing line between the brush or bush 
country to the north— which is not unlike Northern Ontario — and the 
great treeless plal:w to the south. To the south of this line you have 
the country wher? natural precipitation is deficient and where* irrigation 
is required; to the north of Uiis line irrigation is not required. In fact 
much of the country to the north requires drainage. 

In the block described as requiring irrigation there are great po- 
tentialities for agriculture — ji st one thing is lacking and that is a 
suiAcient natural supply of water. The soil is of great depth and as fer- 
tile as any in America. The climatic conditions are not, of course, com- 
parable with those where irrigation was bom in the old world of Hesa- 
potamia, but they are as good as those In many places in the United 
States where irrigation has been successfully developed for many years. 

In dealing with this subject so far I have dealt particularly with 
Uie large aspect of the case and the large developments. To indicate to 
you however, how widespread irrigation is, I should add that in Alberta 
there are outside of the totals already mentioned some 67,000 acres of 
irrigable land which have been developed under small private schemes, 
each covering on an average perhaps two or three hundred acres. These 
schemes arc located mainly in the lower foothills souUi ot Calgary and 
on the west slopea of the Cypress hills. They take their water supplies 
as a rule from the smaller streams where tb» cost of diversion works 
is small. 

In wathwMtKn Sukmtthmu luinly in the diitrict unth ef Mapla 
CM«k th«n kiin bMn limiliiriy d«v*l«p«l a lar(e numlxr of •mall pri- 
nt* telinaaa, tMalllac In aU about iOfiOO aeru of irrigable land. In thii 
diatriet th* gnat naad today i> for raaarvoira to eonaorva the apriag 
flood* «k<<h mm larfoly mn to waat*. Th* Saakatehvraa (ovomnMM 
haa rcemtly ptuaed an Irrigation Diatriet Act aimilar to th* Alb*rU 
Act, and thia n^w mak«a poaaiUa co-oparative effort on the part of th* 
ownnra of th* amall ichcni** to finance the conitruetion of common ra- 
•orvoira which will coaaMrra a aopply of water for their landa. 

Irrigatloa haa r*c*iv«d a black aye in aom* place* in the Unitwl 
SUtea, not through any fault of ib own, but bacaua* of many b*B*fici- 
ally unaound projacta which hav* been Unnched by promotora of land 
•ailing eompaniti. 

There ia on* thing that you muat have with an irrigation iehmna 
and that ia a good anpply of water to irrigate with. Moat of th* fail- 
uraa referred to have been where a wildcat icheme waa atarted wh*r* 
th*r* waa no adequate aupply of water. The offlciala who framed the 
Dominion government law which controU aU irrigation development in 
Alberta, ware wiae enough to profit by the miaUkei which had already 
been mad* in th* Unitwl Statei and I think we can boaat of having 
law* in exiatcnc* h*re which ennre that no wiMcat ichemet can k* d*- 
valopad. Thl* i> a point of v*ry gre^t importance. I wouM dweU on 
thia point a moment longer, becauae what i> needed at the preaent time 
ia capiul to develop new projeeta and there atill aeema to be in th* 
**atem monay markata an air of auapicion toward* irrigation bonda. 
All the further developmenU now propo**d have been aurveyed by the 
Dominion Govemmait, and following out the apirit of the excellent law* 
I think that never bafor* hav* ao careful inveatigationa been made cov- 
ering Uie whole ground of meaauring the available flow in th* atreama, 
making inatnraanul aurvaya. and alao totting the auiubility of the aoa 
I made the autement a little further back that irrigation doublea 
the population and th* production. We cannot (how you a» yet the 
landa with th* gnater population, becauae there haa been ao groat an 
area to aetUe Uiat the lure of cheap landi haa led the new •*ttl*r to 
k*ep apreading oat into the vacant placea. But from now on. aa th* 
vacant landa become acaree, It muat be an axiom that the land with the 
dotfbled productivity will have the doubled population. I don't want to 
weary you with a lot of figure* but it ii now a known fact that irriga 
tlon will double the production. And yet again thia ia a conaervative 
atatement Mr. W. A. Fairfield of the Dominion Government farm at 
Lethbridge haa figurea covering a period of tw*lv* year* ahowing that 
h« irrigated plob have, over a wide range of field crop*, yieUed double 
the amount of hia dry ploU after aummer fallow. Aa the irrigated nloto 
under a rotation lyatem yield every year and Uie aummer fallowed plota 

yield on the ..n>e area. And perhap. the greateet point of all iT that 
the .rrigaud land will yield an averait. of'^Sl ton of i f.lf. ^ a^T.* 
wh.le^on the dry land no hay crop, of any kind can be Ir.^.^"; 

th.tTil'" "I"""""""' »' «<"»«. ">" a farm will nit irrigate iUelf and 
^.t there ,. con.,derabIe additional exp.„., and labor involved in .L*^ 
mg the water over the land. AI.0 interest charge, have t^l^ mrt on 
the capital mveued in the n..ln canal., and there i. the «p,".! Z 
operafjjg and mainUining the.e work.. But after the.. aS'it3co.^ 
have all been met there i, .till a ha„d.ome additional profl wh^ch ".^ 
.ccru«i from the u.e of the water on the land.. In the Lethbridg. d|" 
Wet where .rngation ha. been practi.ed for the long«,t time „S ha. 

dfuZ: Th 'T'fH '\ '' '"""»y""Pt^ that I ful Iwlter rig" 
double, the value of the land. * 

■ .if °" K'""^'"'"'' "'•""y you are all wondering where the nigger 
m the woodpile i., and why with .11 the.e advantage, w. don'tT^e 

have to con.ider, the que.tion of dollar, and cent.. You cannoTget 

heTetr' Z"'"^"'^' '"V" ' "'" """■ " """ "-'y botjrbu'd 
the.e rngat«) .cheme, and to operate them. What i. required ju.t now 
1. capital to finance new development, and it i. in thi. fWd th. IthTnk 
the eaatern manufacturer can legitimately become intere.t«i. 
^.nlfZ""'"' "i" "■''■ ""'"" '■ '"«°'>' i"tere,ted in developing 
IT^~^ ' 1 """" '" "" ""' """ "'«"'" y" manufacture in 
the we.t or m the eart you have got to have a market for your mana- 
factured ware. I think It i» generally true, but in thi. provinceT!. 
cerumly true that the great bulk of our money i. now ,„S alway. win 
be provided from agriculture. You know thi,, of cour.e, but I wi.hed to 
bring up the point in order to go on and note a further point in my 
subject of irrigation. , ' 

Dry farming is a mi.nomer because you cannot grow anything on 
a farm that 1. really dry. You must have water to grow a crop. The 
.0 called dry farm depends for it. water on the natural pr«upiUtion. 
If you plot a chart of vertical column, showing the annual uaeful pre- 
cipitation over Southern Alberta the striking thing about it will be 
that It I. all up. and down.. And ,0 the production i, on our dry farm. 
And naturally so have our busincs, condition, been all up. and down.' 
A year of good rainfall mean, good crop, and plenty of money in the 
country to buy manufactured ware, and the dry year, are the reverae 

I know how hard it i, for the farmer to conduct hi, buaine.. when 
he never know, what ne« year i, going to be like and therefore cannot 
confidently phn ahead and conduct hi. bu.lnem accoitlingly I pre.ume 
it i. equally difficult, for you who are manufacturing and who have 

7;-ji>'' -J- ^ ^ j-jT^ o.-T-T'-i 

certain districU in which to sell your goods to never know whether you 
are going to have a big demand for your gtock or otherwise. Irrigation 
atabiliaes agrienltoral production, and therefore sUbilizea business con- 
ditions. The farmer who has a supply of water which he can count 
on every year has an assurance that he can raise a crop every year. 

And another poi^ along the same lines. It is hard to make a home 
out on the prairie where there is so much wind and so much sunshine. 
Where one i%, in fact, exposed to all the elements. If the farmer and 
his wife and his children have a nice home they will love it and !3ve 
the farm. If they love the home they will stay on the farm and work 
it better than under contrary conditions. This is one of those human 
problems often overlooked but really far-reaching in th«r ^ects. 

There is one thing that helps to ameliorate the conditions on a 
prairie farm above anything else and that is the growing of trees which 
break the wind and give shade from the sun. It is a difficult thing to 
establish a grove of trees on the dry prairie. Trees flourish under the 
irrigatioi ditch, which also makes possible to Uie farmer's wife a good 
vegetable and flower garden. 

Now a word concerning the development of irrigation in Southern 
Alberta. The policy of the Dominion government has always been to 
make the surveys to determine the feasibility of developing certain 
areas under Irrigation but has never undertaken any actual construction 
work. The first phase of the development has been handled by large 
companies who acquiring large blocks of vacant Dominion land con- 
structed the works to serve them with water, and then sold the irrigable 
land to new settlers with a perpetual contract for the supply of water 
to the lands at a fixed annual charge. This form of enterprise has 
developed all the large projects which have been constructed up to date. 

Now the condition is basically changed because the large areas which 
still await development are practically all settled and the people are on 
the land. The proposal is to develop these areas by co-operative effort 
of the land owners themselves and the necessary machinery has been 
created by the provincial government in passing the Irrigation District 
Act In a few words this Act provides for the erection of irrigation 
districts with power to raise the necessary funds, t construct the Ir- 
rigation works, by selling bonds the security for whicn is the land 
within the district. In principle the method proposed for handling these 
districts is not unlike that which has been used in Uie drainage districts 
of Ontario. 

This proposed method of development is quite new in Alberta but 
has made very rapid strides during the past three years, no donbt due, 
at least in part, to the psychological effect of the last three very dry 
years which have been experienced. The Taber Irrigation District which 
will irrigate 17,000 acres as an extension of the C. P. R project near 

Uthbrid,, will compute It. eonitmctlon .nd h.v. w.tM on tb. Und 

nI/JI!'' J,T T'L '""•'«' ""*""•' '~'™''»» «'■« LHhbrldg. 
Nopthorn wh oh w.11 ,rri»,te over lOOJWO >ere> .nd h.. r«.lv«i . good 
d.. of pubhclty of Ute. h.v. b«„ duly .«ct«l, .nd ihre. mo« dU- 
tricU ut in the course of erection. 

Thew diitricu unnot much further progreu tow,rdi con- 
.truction until they .r. .oeceuful in interettin, apit.1 to buy their 
bond, ^d «lruice them money to build with. It i. recogniied that the 
ppownt with it. unr«win.bly high co.t of .11 con.truction m.t.ri.1. 
.nd l.bor m.y not b. . wi.e time to the Urge conetruction 
work mvolved. But whether the proper time to con.truct be tod.y or 
tomorrow, the weatem fumen who .re on the lend, would like the 
ea.tern m.nuf.ctarer. to inve.tlg.te the.e new project, .nd become 

!u , l u: ^"* *''"■ " ""* "'•" *• "■"• " "P* '»' con.tnictlon 

their btcking to theae entwprlae. m.y be forthcoming. 

Colonization and Development 
in Western Canada. 

Col. J. S. Dennis, C. M. G., 
Chief Comminioner Colonization and Development, 0. P. R. 

Mr. Chairiniin and Gentlemen: 

I am very «clsd indeed to be given an opportunity this morning of 
takmg part in the Second Annnal Meeting of the Alberts Induatrial 
Development Asiociation, rticularly in view of the fact that thla aea- 
«ion of the Aaaociation i> being attended by such a large representation 
from the Canadian Manufacturers' Association, an organiiation which 
represents our present industrial development in Canada. I hope tilat 
their visrt to the Wert and attendance at the sessions of this Associa- 
tion will result in their becoming seized with the importance of the 
question of the further development of our natural resources and of 
their throwing the great weight of their organisation behind our efforts 
to reach that end. 

At the session of this Association held in this City last year I had 
the privilege of speaking on the Mibject of the Undeveloped Natural 
Resourcw of Western Ganada. Today, I must again refer in a geneml 
way to theae resource., but 1 want to apeak to you more particularly of 
colonization and development, the oh!y medium through which these 
resources can be made productive. 

I assume that I was honorrd with the invitation to address you 
today on this important subject o»'ing to the fact that my residence of 
forty-eight year, in the West and my work during tilat period in tiie 
services of the Dominion Government, the Hudson's Bay Company Uie 
oW Territorial Government and the Canadian Pacific Railway ComUny 
has ijiven me a somewhat wide knowledge of the location and character 
of our 'itural resources and the methods we must adopt to secure Uieir 
further development. 

In my address last year I dealt in detail with the undeveloped natu- 
ral resources of agricultural land, timber, coal, natural gas. petroleum 
fisheries, base and precious metals, with which Nature has so lavishly 
endowed Western Canada. Today my desire i. to try and put before you 
briefly the manner in which these resources can be made productive 
through the medium of colonization and development. 

Colonization is the most important problem with which we are 
today faced in Canada. By colonization I mean, not only the obtaining 

of the fanner to cultivate our vest unoccupied areia. of Rood agricultu- 
ral land, but the increaiing of our population by the immigration of 
desirable ciUieni who will underUke the development of all our other 
natural reuurcea by providing the necee.ary capital and labor. De- 
. velopment is not pooible without additional capiul and labor, and theae 
can only be provided through the medium of increased population' se- 
cured by proper immigration and colonisation elTorts. 

We we naturally proud of the fact that our participation in the 
late war haa given Canada u standing among the nations of the world 
and that today the name "Canadian" is recognised a. distinguishing a 
citiien of a progressive and virile country, but our share in that great 
struggle haa involved us in financial obligations which can only be met 
and discharged by increasing our population and developing those na- 
tural resources which, while potentially ample security for many times 
our hational debt, can only be made productive of wealth through de- 

It is not possible to quote any definite figures as to the toUl popu- 
lation of Canada until completion of the 1921 census, but assuming that 
the published estimate of 8,500,000 is somewhat near the mark, it will be 
of interest to note our immigration returns for the past fifteen years 
The totel immigration for the period 1906-1914 amounted to 2,530 799 
and for the period 1916 to end of 1919, to o03,197. The falling off in' the 
iter period was. of course, due to the war, but the figures quoted will 
serve to emphasise the necessity for speeding up our immigration and 
colonisation activities if we are to reach the toUl of an increase of at 
least, 600,000 per year, which is ceruinly .the minimum we should aim 

The larger proportion of the immigration to Canada during the 
Mteen year period above referred to has been to the four Western 
Provinces of Manitoba. Saskatchewan, Alberta and British Columbia 
and basing my estimate upon the census taken in these Provinces in 
1916, it is safe to assume that they now have a total pop tion of two 
and one half million. What have we to offer the prospect « --nmigrant 
to Weetern Canada to justify our expectation of a marked movement 
0/ desirable colonists to these Western Provinces this year and a 
rapidly increasing number from year to year until our population reaches 
at least ten million? 

What we have to offer, as I see it, in the order of their imporUnce 
are as follows: 

Agricultural Laud 

In the four Western Provinces we have an area of at least 226 - 
000,000 acres of good agricultural land. Of this vast area, not more than 
36,000,000 acres are at present occupied and cultivated, and of the bal- 
ance of 190,000,000 acres of unoccupied land, 30,000,00$ acres lie* within 

flflMn mile* on neh lid* of eonitnietcd railway llnea. Thnk of It, 
thirty million urn of (ood and chMp agricultural land lying idL- with.i 
nftwn miln of our eonatructnl railway linoi in tho Woat and the World 
eying out for food. Do we nMd any other excun for an activa colo- 
nisation policy? 

The luiubility of our vaat unoccupied areas for iucceaiful agricul- 
tural, horticultural and animal induitry hai been concluiively proved 
by the priiea won in competition with the worW for our grain, fruit and 
liveitock. the product of the occupied areai of thee* four Weatem Pro- 
^ncei, and we can therefore confldently aisert that at the present time 
Western Canada offers to the land seeking colonist an opportunity to 
obtain good land at a low price within reasonable reach of transportatioh 
facil ties, which doea not exist any where else in the North American 


The queation of fuel available for domestic and industrial use is, of 
course, a viUI matter in the development of any new country and is of 
primary importance in Western Canadc where such a large part of our 
agricultural areas consist of open prairiea. Fortunately in this matter 
Nature has been exceedingly kind U> is. Tlie Provinces of Saakatche- 
wan, Alberte and British Columbia contein about 17 per cent of *e 
known coal reaources of the world, and these cnala cover all the diffrjent 
qualities from lignites to bitun.inous, bituminous coking and anthracite. 
The Province of AlberU alone conteina coal reaourcea to the enormouf 
extent of one thousand and seventy-five billion tons, and these facte will 
indicate that without depending upon the fuel obtainable from the na- 
tural gas and timber, referred to later on, our coal requireminta for 
domestic and industrial needs are Uken care of for many eer.turiea. to 

Natural Gaa 

During your trip so far through this Province, you have had some 
opportunity of seeing something of the natural gaa development, but it 
may interest you to know that natural gas has been developed in the 
Province of Alberta within an area extending from the national bound- 
ary North for about 700 miles and from the Rocky Mounteins East for 
200 milea. 

This natural product is now being utilized both for industrial and 
domestic purposes, and the poesibility of its extension as a fuel in 
generating heat, light and power is almoat beyond measure. 

You no doubt will also be intereated to know in connection with our 
natural gas supply that vre are at present producing gasoline from it and 
the op^rtunitles of extending this feature of development, so as to 
increase the supply of this widely used fuel for povrer purposea, are 


vrrj marked. It !• >lao intcrMtinit to note that invntixatiom havi; 
proved the poiiibilitiei of eitractinu from our natural ni the charac- 
ter of gai required for uae in baloona. 

Amociated with our vast coal and natural irai areas, referred to, it 
may, in ray o inion, U accepted that Nature has also blessei' this West- 
ern country with a vast deposit of: 


It is true that wo are not justified at present in claiming that we 
have located and developed this vast oil field, but the exploratory work 
so far carried on over an area extending some 700 miles North to South 
in the Province of Alberta, and at one or two isolated points in the ad- 
jacent Provinces of British Columbia, and the oil obtained in smsll 
quantities at these widely separated points, justify the asnimption that 
somewhere within the Province of Albert, there exists one of the v„t 
deposits of petroleum of the irlobe, and I personally venture the opinion 
that, sooner or later, and in all prohibility in the near future, a larite 
producing oil field will be located through the medium of some of the 
many teat wells that are now being drilled at lely separated points, 
and when that time comes we will not only have thr great addition to 
our fuel supply but the ber.efit of the vast number of by-prod- cts re- 
sulting from the scientific use of crude petroleum. 


Timber has always played an important part in assisting in the 
development of new countries. This is particularly true of the prairie 
portionsi of Western America, where the first need of every settler is 
lumber. In this particular. Nature has again been exceptionally kind to 
the four Western Provinces of Canada, for while the prairie provinces 
of Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Alberta produce a certain amount of 
lumber, the lumber needs of the prairie districts of these provinces could • 
not be filled were it not for the vast timbered areas of the province of 
British Columbia. That provim-e differs from its three sister provinces 
to the east in that it is more or less mountainous throughout and only 
in the valleys is there opportunity offered for agriculture, horticulture 
and animal industry, but the Province possesses one of the great un- 
developed timber areas of the World. Conservative estimates indicate 
that the commercial standing timber in the province of British Columbia 
amounts to 368 billion feet. This timber comprises ceda Dougl.u flr, 
spruce, hemlock, white fir, lodgepole pine, western yellow pine, yellow 
cypress, western larch, western white pine and cotton wood. 

This vast timbered area has already been developed to a certain 
extent through the medium of sawmilla and allied woodworking indlts- 

•ur .xt»nilon of »»rtcultur.l „.,ul ? »' "Pl««l "-IncWmt with 
•„g for ih, «un.lo„ of .u,T^ „t?n .T " —'" '*"*•» 

-- Of ..„r;c4^r. rrr J*!' ixt:,;: -^^ 

CUj lid Cby ShllM 

indu-u..*?*?,!:!' itz iTutn.:"""""'!' " •"'"' •"• -^ "" '•'«• 

Ihe foar W«t.™^.i "' "" '^'•'' ''•P«lf- Througliout .11 

P«ltrv.r,?„ fr„™ oH K °f '"*■ '"■' "" <"«"'»tion of -J,™ do- 

ch..,.„,ToJ.lnr.ll "'"""'"tur. of ,!,„, ,„d ^hor. 

- i^-^^s;» «rpj.rxstxr„r"' ' --^ 


of th. world. Thi, w™tv J ?* T\'* •*• "'"' «■'■'"'' i"""""!" 

«.h during the year 9tS1m^„^Jl./",o,''l,"" "'"'' "' """ ^nd. of 
000,000 ?he «Lrt !i "mount^l to 233,000,000 pound., valued .t 122.- 

of our imporUM lndu.We. of the We.tbLur ''''"' """"'"* '"' 
the development of our „.t«r.. r^o*"'. U-ltinTt^'inC"""" "' 

IrOB On 

Nature to heve We..rt W^^Tp ^ ',"j " *" ""''' """"V ^r 

Uke WlnniptK of M.n.lot.,, ,onw .mdlw dtpgtiti in th< Pnivinr.. 'n» 
8..l<.Ul,.w.„ .„d Alb«U, .„d prob.bly m.r ^„,^,L„t^;:^^" ^ 

not b«n compl.t«) .t ,„y of th«. point, to Ju.iify the prophi.,.. to 

.upply th. .u ■ i. rapidly b«omin, on. of th. n.o.t wid.l, njj 
product, in the world'. d«v«lopni<nt. "^ 

B«» ud PrtckMH MlMnh 

The Province of Briti.h Columbia to th. W«t of u. i. now r^oK- 

T^.Z "1' fl Tl' •"*'•''' """"""<« «'— in th. Continent .ml 
lh« production of both b..e ,„d prMlou. niin.r.l, h.. ,ft«dy r„rh«l 
.mporUnt llKUre. in our n.tion.l w..lth. V..t .,... of th.t Province 
however, yet remain to b« intelliOTntly pro.p«t«l and develop«l wJ 
now know that area, in Northern Manitoba and Sa.katche- 
wan are al.o pr«.ou. and ha.e minwal boarini and further development 
.n tho.. and ..her area, to b. pro.p«ct«) will, without doubt, further 
extend our important mlninn indu.try in the We.t. 


The rapid development of >ny country 1. dclwndent upon tran.porta- 
tion facilitie.. In thi. matter, the four We.tem Province, of Canada 
•tand in an enviable po.ition. Today, w. have a r. eater mil«iKe of 
railway per capiU in operation than in any other country of the world. 
r„i '". ,"•« P"""'" "' Manitoba. Sa.katchewan. AlberU and Briti.h 
Columbia there are at pre,e„t 19.873 mile, of railway in operation, or 
3ne mile for each 110 p«r.on.. Thi. fact .hould brinK home to u. all the 
vital importance of .training every effort to make productive thr'ough 
the medium of colonization and development our dormant natural re- 
.ourcea, and it may be confidently a.aerted that unle.. we can, through 
thi. medium rapidly and materially improve the exi.ling condition, 
many mile, of the.e operated railway, are not going to .how profit for 
.ome year,. ,■ I the .ati.faction of having thi, exceptional mileage of 
operated,,ay, and of being able to point to our unequalled tran,- 

through the medium of taxation. 

in WeaTelTrlld' '""'tf ""' v' """""■ "'"'■""' *" '"" "'" P™"'"" 
!i .1 "" *'"' *^ ^'"" "■ "'''"■ '» "•" capitalLt, the labor- 

- er and the immigrant looking for cheap and good agricultural land, how 
are we through the medmm of colonization and development, going to 
make the,e great undeveloped reaource. known to the re.t of the world 
and in thi, way .timnlate their development? 

jn my opinion, what we need i. more co-operative and concentrated 
effort on the part of government., corporationa and individual, if thi. 

pnbltm !• t* bt nut >ii< mhni In Ih* iMsr futan. In thte e«anMtl<Mi 
It U. I >m mn, cntifylat to m all to note tlut th* movtmnit which 
oriilnnttd with IhU Om*lopmnt AHoelntlon lut jmi hu now rt- 
•ultod In th< wonlutton of Iho WMtoni CmnoiU Colqniulton Awoelo- 
llon which !• ncolvinc lach hudMrno Unuiciol nppert (Tom rtpnMn- 
Utivt cItiHM and cotporatloaa all oror Canada. 

Auuminc that mtaUnga Ilk* thli wo in holdlnc todar. tho orca- 
nliatlon of tho Woatorn Canada Colonliatlon AiMclatlon and mora co- 
opcratlvo and annoalvo action on tho part of tho govornmonU and cor- 
poratlona rotvlu In tho adopUon of • broad and comprahonalvo policy 
of eolonlaatibn and dovolopmont, whoro art wc to direct our offorU to 
Mcuro tho Capitaliat. tho Acriculturlit and tho Uboror which wc nood 
If roaulu aro to bo obtalnodT 

Of tho two and ont half atillion immigraiilt to Canada In the porlod 
IMS to 1«U, to which I havo alroadjr •-oforrod, VHMt eamo from Groat 
BriUin, (Tt,000 from tho Unltod ^toa and tho balance from other 
cr-<ntrloa. Our Immifratlon during the war period 1914 to 1«1» of half 
a million, alao provlouely referred to, waa dlvidod 125,000 from Oroa» 
BriUin, mjMO from tho United S«Mee and the email bal-ve from 
other eountriea. 

Thoao Agurea aorre to indicata the eountriea to wbicH our new elforte 
to obtain immlgranU ahouU oo apaeially directed «e muat realiie 

that the war hae created condltiono in Great I i and Northern 
Europe that muat aerioualy affect the movement o !>otb capital and 
people from thoeo eountriea for eome time, and out epi al offorta ehouM, 
theaeforo. for the preeent be confined to the United l -tae. We know 
that following every modem war in Europe there hae boon an Incraaaed 
n<jvoment of people to thia continent and can feel aaaured that to toon 
at conditlona become mor» «tabiliied, and the exchange conditiont more 
favorable, we can expect a very large movement of both capital and 
people from Great Britain and Northern Europe to Canada, but, in the 
meantime, we mutt follow tho line of leatt retittanct and ttimulate the 
already large movement of both capita' and population from our 
Neighbor 'teuth of the International Boundary. We have the opportunity 
for the capitaliit, the land hungry tettler and the laborer Iwiking for new 
opportunity, they have the men and the money, and every inducement 
■hould be offered to itlmulata the movement from South of the Line of 
the capitaliit or tettler who will help ut to tpeed up our coloniiation 
and development. 

We may confldently atnert that at the pretent time Canada and ita 
opportuniti** itand out in the minda of the people of Great Britain, 

i^-lSJ^i^^ '•? '""•"'•'^ •l-U'y " th. p.rt of ,»r 

Canada Versus other Open Spaces of 
the World- A Comparative Study. 

Dr. H. M. Tory, 
President of the University of Alberta 

Mr. rhairmnn, (.adies and Gentlemen. 

I feel especially honored at beinR asked to speak to this delenation. 
assembled as it is from nil over Canada, and especially as the topic that 
1 have been assip-ned is one of general interest rather than of special 
and particular interest to the Province of Alberta. 

I think, in some measure, the fact that I have been aske<l to speak 
to you ia a sign of the times in the sense that we are living in an age 
when men are looking for knowledge and seeking to act in the light 
of knowledge and experience in a way that they have never done 
before. Whatever else of good the war brought to us, there are we 
who believe in education as the fundamental thing in a nation's life 
and greatness, and that it has brought a thirst for knowledge unknoiRn 
before in the English speaking world. 

We are a very practical people, we Anglo-Saxons, and we have 
been very much inclined in the past to live from day to day, giving 
not very much thought as to what the future is to be, hu! believing 
that if we do the day's work well, the future will take care of itself, 
and in the main, one is not inclined to doubt this philosophy of life 
very much. I think it is this philosophy that helps keep an optimistic 
spirit The war hai Uught us that it is advisable for us to have an 
organized knowledge of our resources, to think in terms of what we 
have, and it has also taught us that that nation is wise that has 
thought out and adopted a programme for the orderly use and develop- 
ment of its resources. And so it was suggested that I might talk on 
"Canada," thinking of it largely in a comparative way to the other 
parts of the world in competition with Canada, and who for the last 
fifty years have been measuring strength and development ind cultiva- 
tion of resources with Canada. 

Now, there are certain things that, it seems to me, we should 
bear in mind, and that is this: the habit of constantly cultivating 
lertnin things absolutely necessary for the development of a stable 
civilizat on. Certain things depended in the past on superficial con- 
ditions and passed away, the permanent rested up certain distinctive 
things that must be obtainable and therefore, when we speak of the 
future of Canada in competition with the United States of America 


things that tend for .table, continual 

and othera. we think of 
growth and development. 

Let us refer firat to the white civilliation because it i. i„ ,1, 

country There are certain region, in the world where Xe Ln 

^rnXtth^a''■ctr^:^:xre• '^r-' '^"^^^ 

a di«cu,t time^ivin. in ul. Z:!:^^^^ ^ -"'it! 

the world; and India can never be an Anglo-Saxon", country In the 
way^that we mean when we .peak of Great BriUin. Canada 'or A„.! 

n„Jtf T""^- '■'™." I^^™""^"' 'ootinK, for inaunce, „„ the develop- 
ment of the indu.try, for the rea,on that sooner or later thJ 
mme, would run out, with the con.equent removal of the niabTunU 

n«lt' .'""''"'•,' "™«™ *» »««<■" «» ".u.t have an agrTcu 
tural bail, for white civilization. agricul- 

Now, when we come to compare countries of the immediate futur. 
n compeffon with Canada, let u, flr.t refer to IndT A far " 
the development of a white colony i, concerned. India i, nol in co " 
pet.t,on w,th Canada, I mean a. a country where men come ti .ettTe 

rratruX'.""' '° ""^ "" '"" "-"■- ""^ -- ^^^ 

Then I will take another great country in competition with Canad. 
-Auatraha. Auatralia ha. a little over one-half of^he pop'ltio? and 
an area somewhat equal to that of the Dominion of Canad' Wh^f 
you think of the large .ection. of Canada belonging to tk. <- 
north, you immediately think Au.tralia ha. a dltin t'adtl'.eZr 
u.; but I m.ght .ay what we have loat in northern latitude AuLaZ 
ha.s more than lost by h*r arid lone. Australia 

Many more detail, might be related, but the fact remain. th« 
m point of cLmate Canada ha, an advantage over a cou"^ Hk" 
Australia, "d even m these day, of ea.y transportation, the d^tance 

Tn'-H «*"';" ^"""^ '° ^'""'■''"» '^ '<«• '«« »•' .compare i with 
Canada. Men dea.rms not to go too far from home, and Cwlda h" 
a d,.fnct advantage a. compared with Au.tralia. in bein^ ne^'r^ 
the Central European countries. "rarer lo 

Might I now compare Canada with South Africa e«t,r,li„» 
a vast territory • After all. Udie, and GentlemTn ' tlTere t ^X 
no comparison between Canada and South Africa from the poi" of 
view of the ordinary worker. South Africa in the sense in w^h 
.peak of Canada, is not a white man's country I in,. „., ^ / 
look up figures for a country like Rhodesia, "'The ir^a 'ofTh^esla" 

ii 460,000 •qiure milM, double tk« liic of Alberta, and the population 
ie almoit an entinly nativa black populaUon. It ia a country where 
large ranchers, mining proapeetors, men capable of handling big enUr- 
priiei will And a home, but we will not «nd there the settled conditions 
which malie for permanence in our own country; and for many yean 
Rhodesia will not became a white man's country. 

And then I will toke German Eaat Africa for compariaon with 
Canada. After all the years that Garmany has occupied German Eaat 
Africa. It still remains with a popuIaUon of 2,00« whites and eight 
to ten million blacks; and for the next (Mty years the competition that 
Canada will have from that occupied territory will be practically nil. 
There will be mining development, and there will be development of 
great rubber pUntationa, requiring limited numbers of white men, 
the work being done not by white men but by black men. And white 
men will not seek such places except a few adventurous spiriu that 
like to get away. So that I regard it, at leaat for the next fifty years, 
as not seriousl/ in competition with Canada from the point of popu- 
lation and settlement 

And so with Mesopotamia. Her agriculture, nines and other re- 
sources will be developed by British ingenuity and brain. BritUh 
people will draw large incomes from the great enterprises that will 
be developed from agriculture, but thai country will not be settled by 
white men, and the work will b« done by the preaent inhabitanU that 
occupy it. 

If we go ouuide of the Empire, the ArgenUne offers an ouutand- 
;nK example of a country with which Canada is in competition. But 
the Argentine is not likely to be a country from which men from 
BriUsh and Northern Europe will go in large numbers. It is a foreign 
country, without a setUed government, and the Argentine will prove 
attractive to Southern Europeana rather than Northern Europeans. 
Since the Argentine was opened to immigration about thirty years ago! 
there has been two million Italians, mainly from Southern luly, and 
only between thirty and forty thousand British go there. So that I 
think we may safely believe that the Argentine will attract people 
from Southern Europe, the men who do not (It well into our Canadian 

Now let us compare Canada with the United Sutes of America 
The story of the trek of t."!e white man across the continent by means 
of horses, carts and the simpler means of transportation will be one 
of the romances that history will record. People of this age ,ro too 
near its history to appreciate all its wonders. 

The United SUtes has a population of 110,000)000 pauple. I do 
not hesiute to say that once the U.S.A. settles down to a real economic 
and scientific development of her resources, she will be capable of 
easily supporting and feeding a papulation of 600,000,000 people. 

, .1. T! T*" *"• ""* "'"''• «»»««™«<1 "hout the food lupply 

l8«th; but modern civ.liwtlon hu ko.. .head » rapidly that it ha, 
learned to economize iti own re«>urcet. 

Now we have thie advantage over the United State.: that instead 
of people gong to the United SUte. from Canada, the futur" will 
see many Americana coming hare. 

America ha. 800^)00,000 acre. regard«J a, arable land. Canad. 
ha. about one-half the arable land of the United SUte., but pr.ctically 

wLwhT^ 'Jr."? 'h *• ""''r' f ""^ '' ■" "««"' •"""■• n-'tivation, 
while the arable land in Canada ha., a. yet, only been touched 

Canada', effort in the war al.o placed her in a new light .o far 

«. the world I. concerned. Before the war the general idea of out- 

..der. wa. that to be a Canadiw, wa. to be an American. All thi. 

fv."T 'liT'**,':^', "^ "" •"""' ■" *^'^» ""«t« »<•« with a 
.ohdanty that will play a great part in future development. From 
the .tandpoint of chmate and agriculture. Canada ha. little to fear in 
competition with the United States. 

Juat think of this for a moment: The German Empire before the 

Z. ^\TT Ti' "■"" °' '«""»^-"'"e >*" than hatf the 
area of Alberta, and that territory wa, occupied by 66,000,000 people 
who were .elf-.upporting. There i. no doabt that before aifwar 
Germany had rttained a very high industrial development, which resulted 
in her producing between seventy-flve and ninety per cent, of the actual 
supplies required. Thi. factor was responsible for the large number, 
of men available for the purpoee of conducting war. Germany .hould 
have b»n .tarved out by 1917; and had she not been wise in her plans 
she certainly would have been starved out in 1»I7. 

France is a country with great po..ibilitie.. ' With an area le» 
than Alberta, France supports a po: •.•lation of 17,000,000 people living 
pnncipally from agriculture, and l.,e balance on industrial d'eveloo- 
ment. Now, when you compare that with what the Dominion of Canada 
haa and thinli of what our vast agricultural area is now producing 
how vast V" ou^ chance for development of possibilities be with our 
untouched ■ all occupied? 

Then I think I need only speak of one thing. We as a peoote 
are rather staid, rather slow-going, fairly good natured, not over-oro^ 
gressive, but with agricultural development puahed to the fore we will 
be the equal of any in the world, and if a future demonstration of 
that question wa. necessary, the record that the Canadians made In 
France is proof for all time that the people of thi. country lag behind 
none in the qualitie. of courage and wlf-ttcrifice, organisation and 
:ho.e general qualitie. of character that make for a virile nation 

In spite of all our railway dHBculties, we have our transportation 

.yit.m developed and arguiied. We ere 26 yean ahead of South 
Africa, 26 year, ahead of Au-tralia. SO year, ahead of Mewpotanii., 
and I do not know jut how far ahead of German East Africa, and 
away ahead of the Argentine. We are fortunate that we have a tran.- 
portation .y.tem developed which givn u. an opportunity to get our 
producu out. '.nd if We.tem Canada had not her railway, at thi. 
time, the ponioility of getting them within 26 year, would be very 
•mall, and they would co.t at lea.t 100 per cent, more for their con- 
.truction. Whatever the annual deflcit of our railway., the good we 
derive from our tran.porUUon !y.tem more than equalise, thi.. 

I want to teU you men from Ka.Um Canada that we have here 
one-fifth of the arable hind of the Dominion; fifty thousand square 
mile, more land than the German Empire had before the war, with 
natural resource, equai to the natural resources of the German Empire, 
although undeveloped, and I believe that thi. Province with normal 
development could rapport from thirty to fifty million people. 

We have fourteen per cent, of the total .oal area in this Province; 
eighty-s,x per cent, of the total of Canada is found here, and we hope 
that you will be sufflcienUy patriotic to assist the people t,. Uberta 
to supply Alberta's coal to meet the need, of Ea.tern Canada. 

I would like to make this one Anal remark, and that is in connec- 
tion with our school.: if there is anytMng that we in Canada, and I 
think that in this we in Alberti. are not lacking, is in the establish- 
ing of great schools in our towns and villages for the development 
and education of our children. 
I thank you. 

Banking and Reconstruction. 

H. B. Mackenzie, Esq. 
Asit, General Manager Bank of Montreal. 

Mr. Chairman and Gentltmen: 

attention. In 8p«kine rf ^^l, Z" " """"' «"""*"« wide 

tention to cov r t L°U fl^/ '"'' '«<'»""«=tion, it i, not my i„. 

all >!l»..>. „» *i. ""'«"■ mat arise in that connection are met bv 
statements of our chartered banlc« r "«"»» in the Government 
Total aweU 838,000,000to 1,322,000.000 

These fl«ure.7rV;of cVuVsV'a KVi;cti"o;";/;r''^T '° '■»'"•»»».<'»» 

point, any gain the, represent In 0^"'.'^ offset by thl Tn'r """'- 

oflh. rl""'^^ I " " " ■"""'"" *" "-^ ""'^■'- The term •• flaUo„ 
of the Currency" has sometimes in the past been applied to the vich^^" 
practice adopted by embarr„sed governments of ,.yi„g their wlvL 
their own discredited and irredeemable notes. In the'e Ls« theTot^. 

Lnvprn^f , . , ^f"'' ""'" '"'' "" '"'^ '«»"" not., of the 

ment, of .„ ,„crea«d volunie of bu.ioe., in a period of r.pidly 
pr,c.. and wa^e,. Peop:. are n,erely doin^ a, tl,ey have afway. done 

Thl cur7"' '^ ""™k' °' '""'"'' """■'"■' '- ■"» current neeS 
The currency ha, not been pu,hed out and there i, no b.r to it. re- 
dempt.on, and ,t ha, suffered no lo.. „f value through di.tru.t of it. 

orb.r''. '" '**"• '^"'*''"- '" '•"'• '" "■'"•' '"»'• "hile the amount' 
of b^k and Kovemment note, in circulatioh ha, largely increa.ed, there 
' 2!'" "° '""«"»" o' our currency in any discreditable sen.e 

The bankers in Canada have been complimented and I think fairly 
upon the way they have handled the successive problem, which arose 
durmK the war, but perhaps the times upon which we now seem to be 
entering, may prove a more severe test of their prudence and ability 
When price, are steadily rising there i, little risk in making, loans; 
bus.nes, people are all prospering, failures are few. and the good, that 
the merchant buy, with the bank', advances, and from the sale of 
which he expects to repay, grow in value as they lie on his shelve.. 
While these conditions last, losses are seldom serious. 

Following the outbreak of war there was a general confusion and 
h«iUtion in business for a few months, and for a short period there 
was even fear in this country of slack trade and unemployment. That 
situation, however, quickly changed; a demand sprung up for good, and 
in a short time a rise in price, began which continued until the armi- 
«tice in November, 1918, accompanied naturally, by a corresponding 
rise in wages. Each new government loan, each increase in bank credits, 
gave new life to the movement in which wages and prices acted and re- 
acted upon each other constantly ascending spral. When the armistice 
came, there was a brief period of hesitation, and for a few months prices 
showed a decline but it did not last long. The momentum gathered by 
the upward movement during four years had not exhausted itself, and 
prices and wages resumed a rise which has continued until the present 
It was obvious that this could not go on indefinitely, but it was not so 
easy to find a means of checking it Bankers in the United States and 
Canada have now, however, adopted practically a uniform policy of put- 
ting a stop to the further expansion of credits and confining advances 
to the actual rc(;uirements of the business of the borrower. Those de- 
sirous of still further extending their business on borrowed money now 
meet with no encouragement. This policy is believed to be not only in 
the best interest of both borrower and lender, but also necessary from 
a national standpoint as a first step in the return to more stable busi- 
ness conditions. Every one concerned is probably aware of it by now and 
it has been, in the main, accepted by borrowers with good grace. It may 
be that this policy of restriction is the cause of some recent breaks in 

prlcti >nd dlKount ulu; it may b« that they .re coming anyw.y .t .11 

P«.k of high pricet or not •. uncerUin, but if we .re not .t the ne.k 
w. mu.t .urely be clo.. to it, «d then w. .h.ll to .„ th, Ir^ 
trying experience of coining down on the other .ide 

n„™^r'°„' ?.' "■;' *•, "'■' *" """'"yinK "nd con.uming .n .b- 
no™.l ,«.nt.ty of goal, .nd turning out .n .bn„rn,.l nu'ntity of 

cM.ed, .nd. in . Urge metinre >lso. the borrowing, .nd with incre..inir 
production it i. only „.tur.l th.t we .hould witne.. the rever. " pr« .. 
We cnnot expect to «,Joy the ,.me n,e..ure of proeperitv both Toing 
up .nd commg down, but with co-opemtion .niong.t .11 cl.„e. we Z 
perh.pi m.nage at leut to come gently down. 

»,.■]' It ""^^^^ '" «'"'• ■"■•""• tk't until production overtake, de- ' 

"oe. nlt'^m^ "" "*"".•"•"* '■" '" P"«»' »"•» P"h«P. thi. view 
doe, not .ufflciently recognt« the difference between "dem.nd" .nd 
wh.t «onomi.t. 0.11 "eflTective dem.nd" th.t i.. both ability and willing- 
«., to buy. There h.. not been, in the memory of man. ,„ch iavi.h 
w..te of money .. in the \»M tew year,, .nd tho,e who have been making 
and spending more money than ever before, and who have no viaion 
would, perhap,. like to ,ee it go on. but effective demand may be Iri-' 
ou,ly curtailed through dimini.hed purchasing power. Every one ^11 
agree th.t the .timulu. to bu.ine» .nd the greetlv .uemented porchaa- 
mg power of our people in recent ye.r, baa been due to the .nnual ex- 
^a^'^' /"^ ™V!™,»"'' *•>« B"""> -nd foreign government, of 
hundred, of milLon. of dol!.r. of borrowed monev. for aupplie, required 
to crry on the w.r. We .re atill in the after-rrlow of thi, un,nb,tanti,l 
pro.perity. but ,urely the cution of .11 that .bnorm«l expenditure will 
before long be felt in our economic life, and reflected in a curtailment 
of the purchaaing power of our people. »"ment 

whn™'?^''" the wiUinene,, to buv-<)„rinc the war year, people 
who waited ,ix month, to buy anything found they had to pav more for 
It and ever „nce th.t idea took firm hold, merchant, and the miblic have 
continued to buy freeh-. but when the conviction become, ..eneral tZ 
the dice ha, turned, the tendency will be to b„v ,n„ri„„lv-, perfects 
T^y:'""! "''if'' '^" ■""""' '» ■'"™' "™" "•" - Tee buying 

Til ? , .. i"°T'' '" """"■"' "™'"'""« -o much advi,ed and 
,0 little followed in the year, ju,t behind u,. 

We he« on .11 aide, th.t we ah.ll never „. nre-war price, again- 
perhap, not. but "never- i, . long time. Mo.t of „, c.n remember th^ 
the agitation in the United State, for the free coi«,ge of ,Tlver wa, 
baaed upon a grievance of the farmers, who compl.ined that thev had 

to my oir with »hut at Me • buih*!, mortcagn, eontraetwl whm 
wheat wai tl a biuhal. It wa< than conlldently auerKd that wt ihould 
n«v«r He dollar wheat a(ain, but we did see it and before the war. 
Let me give yon a brief quotation from the Economic Memorandum 
prepared by the Supreme Council of the Peace Conference durinc their 
recent leuion In London. Here It ia: 

"In the Napoleonic ware, pricet In England roae 76% and took 

eight yeara to become normal again. In the American civil war, 

American pricea roae 100% and took twelve yean or more to 

become normal.** 
Perhaps, in the light of theae facta "never" is too itrong a word. 

Under exiating cireumitances banken have properly become more 
than uiually cautloui becauae, aa to the great bulk of the reeourcea they 
admlniiter they are merely truateea and bound to remember that they 
are advancing money placed by other people In their care. They are 
naturally not always able to aee eye to eye with wouldbe borrowers, 
and I am far from cUlmIng that their Judgment is always and of neces- 
sity right Experience, however, has taught them certain guiding lines, 
for Instance— that their advaneea should In the main be made to busi- 
ness peoplj for the leglthnato purpoee at their bualneas and with a 
source repayment in eight from liquid asieta. There are. of course, 
other Classes of legitimate loana, and exceptional transactions justified 
on their individual merito, but a prudent banker has a strong laming 
towarda liquid aaseta. In speaking of buainesa people, I include alao, of 
course, the farmers whose legitimate requlreinento for purposes of pro- 
duction are reeognlied aa sound banking buainesa, and the farmera are 
in fact the principal borrowera at the small branehea In the Prairie 

Let me just add that bankers have an equal interest In all sections 
of the country, and in all claase* of the community. Their interesta and 
their services extend to all sections and to all clasaea allko, and if I 
may make local reference, I am satisfied a fair investigation would ahow 
that these Prairie Provinces are as well served by the Canadian banks 
as any similar diatrict In any part of the world. 

We are living in a rather unsubstantial state of things just now, 
and we all want te get back to earth with the leaat possible disturbance. 
It is, perhaps, inevitable, in a free democucy like ours, that, during the 
period of re-adjuatment there will be out-spoken diiferencea of opinion 
between one geographical section of the country and another and be- 
tween one class of the community and another. No one can say when. 
or in what shape, these differences will arise or how formidable they 
may be, but we can, at all eventa, make up our minds in advance that, 
in the interests of the whole country, sectional or group differences 
should not be allowed to disorganize our community life, but should 

to H* how f*r thoM coaU b* rKoncilod. Thty did not rweh common 
«„, on .11 th. topic. dl«u.«l (it I. hardly to ^.^^2? 

dtc-^T-rd^roT ;;;?."" ""• "■' "™ "--^ '-"»« "••' <« •>•" 

«» ll! r"' '•'*;'"'»•"«'"' •" P««> l»«k to normal condition, if th.r. 
c.n b. d«^.lo,«l in th. mind, of .11 c«.di.n. . .tron, ..nw of 
unity, . cl«r ld« th.t wh.Uv« th.l, «,l.l „ ,o«i,|o„.i „ cUm rfU|. 
. o» m.y b. they o« . common «,d . hi,h.r . p„«n3t 
. to th. Dominic of C.n«l.. A„ln.t th. d.v.lopmJ^t of Z. 
U.. of n.tion.1 unit, will b. found th. cl....mi„d«i m.n .nd th. .l.„! 
mind<d group, who find it difficult to think .nd plan .long ft, 
l.n. of wh.t .«m. to b. imm«ii.t, .nd p.r.on.1 .d..nt.g. 'hwl 
flr.t .nquiry on .„y quwtion i. .Iw.y,. "Wh.t i. th.r. in it for «"' 
nri-'^f-i r' ■"if™''"""""' ■»« I «m not .uwcting th.t th, guiding 
principle of our ba.lnM. .nd public llf, .houM b. Mlf..«rific, how- 
.v.r much b. for th. principl.. I .„ .,„id hZl ^'i. ". 
y.t .offic^cnUy .ltn.i.tic to m.k. th.t .nd it I. hum.n n.t»r. 
th.t w. h.v, to d..l with.,r«l will probnbly continn." bl 
th. of hum.n .nd«ivor but .n .nlight.ned,rMt i. 
rfur .11 not .uch . b«l thing, for if .„h citi.,n kn,w wh.t w..^lly 

would di«pp«ir .. If by m.gic. It i. blind ««,.t th.t i. thi .nd the remrty i. th. .prud of th. «tu.l truth on bu.inM. 
■nd pohticiU quMtion., .nd th. linding of »m. rtf^Uv. m„n. to quick- 
•n th, public MnH, not only of th. mutual .dvanUgn, but .l.o of th. 
mutu.1 r«pon.ibiliti.a of community lif.. 

".Iki"'^ " "'J^*' ' *"" """*" •' <"«•«>«« •« opinion u« 
•uiccptibl. of .micbl. if .»-h .id, uk.. th, troubl. t. 
mak, a fair invMtigation of th, othor >ide'. point of vi,w. Unfortunatolv 
it u.U|rily h.pp,n. that, on both .id«, th,r, .r, irr«onciUbl„ who.. 
hMt«l .nd ,xtr.v.gant .tat«m,nu confu» th. public icnn of right 
and wrong and inflam, grievanc. .UK.ptibl. of amleabl.,nt if 
.ppro«h«l in a spirit of conciliation. If w, could only get rid of th, 
irr««, it would b, infinit,ly «.i,r to bring mod.r,t. p«,pl. 
togrthcr but I ttai it i. too bright a hope to choriah. 

Th, l.bor di.pnt« of recent y^r. h.v,, however, ,hown Uut 
public opinion i. becoming « very pow.rful fKtorj the .trike that h.. 
the aympathy of th. general public i. already half won; the .trik, which, it is almoat .ur, to f,il, and th, g,n,r.l .pread of knowMg, i. 

■II th* tirna nukliic it mon dUkult to mUlMd paepla In My eoantiy 
whtra th« itUKUrd of odunUon it to klf h u it !• htn. All thii mnu 
procrat towirdi > hotter lUU of tkinft- Th* croat bofoy of tho world 
today ia Bolihoviim «nd it thrivoi boot omontit tho Ifnonnt. All kindi 
of moani are ■iwiMtnl to dafaat it. bat parhapo tho inroit of all U to 
awaktn In tho public mind an Idoa of citiunihip, alon(ild« of which 
Boliheviim limply cannot Ilvt. 

In tho apmdini of corract information on contnvaraal aubjaeta tha 
Canadian Cluba can, parhapa, parform uaaful aarviea aa a aort of fomm 
in which both aidaa of any quaatlon of raally national imporUnca can 
icat a fair hearing. Thera, if anywharo, tha Idaa of naUonal unity ahould 
flourlih, and I hava no doubt it doaa for tho audlanca at tna Canadian 
Cluba rapreaant a high typo of Canadian eitiianahip— I may lay that tha 
committee of the Canadian Club of Montreal, of which I happen to be 
preiident thia year, recently had thii matter under diacuaaion. During 
the war we could thinli of little elae but war, and wa had many addr^-iaoa 
which inapired and thrilled ua. Aa a paopla, howaver, wa no» hava ^<> 
turn our attention to aomething diatinctly leea thrilling, but atill ex- 
ceedingly important~-that ia. the Job of aetting our houae in order, and 
the problems that ariae in that connection are naturally of great intareat 
to every citizen. We do not wlah to hear from denagoguea or flre-brandi, 
but we ahall welcome the opportunity of liataning to addraaaaa from 
fellow citiiena of good will and qualified to apeak in terma of common 
■enae and moderation on either aide of any queation of large public In- 

There is a wide-apread feeling that our national development haa 
become a little one-aided of laU, and we ahall do wall If we can contrive 
a more balanced growth; town and country keeping atop in u ataadily 
advancing proaperity, mutually helpful and mutually dependent. The 
balance, however, is a little out at the moment Both in thia country 
and in the United States there has been, for some years, a steady drift 
from the land to the cities, which it seems desirable to check, but very 
difficult so long as higher wages and shorter hours in the citie* continue. 
I do not pretend to aay what ia the remedy. There haa never been a time 
when the attractiona of life on the farm aeemed greater to who 
do not live there. Rural telephonea, rural letter deliveriea, b^. ma- 
chinery, better roada. motor cara; all these things might be expected to 
make farm life more agreeable than it was twenty years ago. Aa a 
matter of fact, however, the drift to the eitiea continuea. We have heard 
a good deal recently about the farmer'a handaome proftta and improved 
styles of living, but the city dwellers show no inclination aa yet to go 
back to the land and ahare in theae good thinga. if the drift continuea 
long enough, the undermanned farma may not be able to feed the over- 
populated cities and hunger may drive people back to the land, but 

■lorlng the .ncour.K,menl of U^ ImmiBrmnti of th< 
.grlcullu,.! cl«. will, of cour... hrip th, .itualion .„d Kiv. u.. for th. 
tin,. b.i„g, mor. p,!,ple to till th. .oil which i. our Kr.ato.1 „«d .t th. 
inoin.nt but if th.ri- i. .„ underlying c.u.e for the drift to th. citi« 
iininii;r.tian will only brinir temporary relief. ' 

In .ny immiirration propouundii cure >hould be talien not to over- 
•Ut. th. .bout thi. country. Over.«uie„,ent >.lw«y, doe., in th. 
.n.L mor. h.rn. th.n icood .nd the truth about any part of he Dominion 
or Canada i. qutt. good enoujrh. 

The ubnornial conditions under which wo are now livinit did not 
«rl.. in a day and they will not be cur«l in a day and the period of re- 
.dja.tment may prove to be a real le.t of our patriotism, but whatever 
diffarenee. may ari.e within our border., it {. mo.t unliidy that Can- 
ud,.n. w,ll y.eld aacendency to any section of th. country „• to any 
da... It >. foreign to the .pirit of our people that any citixen, or any 
gropn of citiien., .hould be .ubmi.,ive and dumb under a .en.e of in- 
u.tic., and the right of individual, having common interest, to form 
th.m..lve> into union, and a..oc.ation, for the more effec'ive iromotion 
and protection of those intere.ts. is no longer seriou.^ly .lue.tioned It 
i. proper and in the line of progress that different .ections of the country 
and different clas.e. of the community should press for ti.eir honest 
rlghU by con.titutional and orderly method.; but between that and uk- 
ing short-cut. to what we may conceive to be our right., lie. all the 
difference between organize I society and barbari.m. There is not the 
.lightest doubt that Canada will continue to stand for an organised 
•ociety, and will continue to uphold the authority of our Dominion and 
Provincial parliaments and of our court, of law, and if there should 
come amongst us some of another way of thinliing, we can only say to 
them "Friends, you are out of place here, but the world is wide". 

In the development of our natural resources, it is very imporunt to 
proceed only upon absolutely reliable information in order that discredit 
may not fall on the name of the Dominion, through losses made by 
investor, in unsound enterprises. Our Dominion and Provincial govern- 
menU and our universities maintain staffs for re.iearch work which 
render excellent service to the public but it has been, in recent years, 
increaaingly difficult to hold such men in government employ, or at the 
universitie., on the scale of pay provided. The temptatons in the form 
of larger salaries obtainable outside are too great. From the standpoint 
of the individual, concerned, one cannot wonder at this, but from the 
national standpoint it is to be regretted because a high standard of 
efficiency in these research bureaus constitutes a valuable public safe- 
guard against the adventurous promoter with his reckless statements 
whose sole concern Is his own personal profit and who cares littlj 

wh.Oi.r h. .chi.vM It by div.l.plnR th« coantry'i natural rtwun.*. or 
bjr «xploltiiiir hli r>llow citlitni. 

To iho., onxtKod in what ■» oiled our uturol induttrln It umt- 
tlmn .ppeir. that irovtrnmenU *n overkind to o.htr entorprtm cal- 
cul.t«l to m.k. th. country ..If-.upporting In . wid.r rani, of th. 
nocnurlM of life .nd in lomt iniUncto they miy be right, but I think 
Mie w.r hu help«) u. .11 to tnlit, th.t > policy, which c.nnot porh.p. 
b* made to tquere exectly with par. economic theory, m.y yet b« pru- 
dent from • n.tlon.l .Undpoint if due reg.rd i. to present worU 
condition.. When the w«r broke out it wu c.rUinly fortunate that 
Canada wa. not only able to tend food to Great Briuin, but had al.o 
hundred, of factorle. and thousand, of muhini.u and other operative, 
capable of beini turned at once upon th. work of maklnv war material. 
AM th. world i. not ev.n yet th. friend of the BrjtI.h Empire and the 
widely leparated part, of the Empire cannot .afely .praialite at pre..nt 
on a f.w linn of indu.try for which they >re peculiarly adapted and 
depend on getting their other requirement, from out.ide. There I. an 
economic .tandpoint which leem. to Uke little or no account of the 
poaaibility of war but after what we have Ju.t been through, w. would 
not like to feel too largely dependent for th. neceiurie. of life upon the 
good-will of even the mott friendly of foreign nation.. In a matter of 
thi. kind there are of cour.e, reaeonabl. limit, to be observed and it i. 
th. budn... of .utem.n.hip to And them and to adjuat them from time 
to time a. circum.Unce. may warrant but alway. and .olely in the 
national Interest. 

The war ha> left u> with a national deb. <: quite formidable pro- 
portion., the intereat on which, and the payment of peniloni, will be a 
heavy charge upon the Dominion, and to provide for the., and th. 
gradual repayment of principal, it i. mo.t important that our national 
production in all line, ahould be mainulned at the maximum conii.tent 
with reasonable expecution. of demand and that a. a people we ahould 
cea.e extravagance and turn to thrift. We do pay lip service to the., 
idea., but there i. often an atmoephere of convention and artificiality 
about it that i. not inspiring. 

The uphMval and dislocation caused by the war, have been so tre- 
mendous and so wide-spread that there is no precedent to guide our 
views as to the experfence that await us, and there is much diversity of 
opjnion as to the probable course of events, but we are favoured in poa- 
sessing a magnificent country, rich in natural resources and an intel- 
ligent, industrious, and law^ibiding population, and our long future 
is not for one moment in doubt. 

The Water Power Resources 
of Alberta 

C. H. Attwood, 
Water Power Branch. Oepartimnt of tha Intariw 

The Province of Alb«ru !• ptcullarly fortunau In having within 
ilii boundarin v»t coal rnirvci and ImporUnt waUr powart. U tha 
invvatigation and txploiution of theia two raaottrcaa ar* praparly 
co-ordinated, there need Iw no doubt about th« fuel and power naada 
of the Province, at well ai large areaa of eontiguoua territory, being 
properly met. Owing to the nature, exUnt and locaUon of tha known 
coal areai, many ImporUnt water power litea in the Province are 
for the moment not of immediate economic importance, ao far aa the 
development of power ii concerned. It it probable, however, that with 
the increaied coat of coal production, tranaportation and labor diflcul- 
tiei. etc.. and with advance! in the art of the development, tranamia- 
iion and uae of hydro-electric energy, meet of the water powera of 
the province will in time prove to be important factor! In the fuel 
power problem! of the Weat. 

For leveral year! paat engineer! of the Dominion WaUr Power 
Branch of the Department of the Interior at OtUwa, have been engaged 
in making a thorough exammation of the water power reaourcea of 
the eettled portion! of the Province. Theae examination!, luppla- 
mented by reeonnaiieance itudiei of the water powera in the uniettlad 
areas and by the hydrometric inveatigationi carried out by the Irriga- 
tion Branch, now the Reclamation Service of the aame Department, 
have reiulted in there being collected and collated at the preaent time, 
siilDcient data to permit a fairly accurate and comprehenaive Mtimate 
beinK made of the power poasibilitiee of all the imporUnt power riven 
of the Province. On certain rivera close to preeent eettled areaa, the 
Dominion Water Power Branch engineer! have made very extenaive 
surveys. On the Bow River, for initance. after several years of moat 
thorough inveatigation, there was issued in 1914, a report by this 
Branch which indicates a fortunate situation with regard to power 
development eontiguoua to the City of Calgary. Theae surveys show 
that by storage and regulation it should be possible to develop snf- 
ficent horse power on the Bow River alone, to meet th ■ ordinary cen- 
trrl station needs of a population of 300.000 people. 

Detail power and itorage investigations h«ve alio been made on 

the Elbow, Red Deer. Sukatchewan, Peace and Athaba^ka Rivera, 
while much daU rekting to the imaUer etreams have been collected. 
Inveetigatory .urvey work is being rapidly extended to cover all the 
power rivem, and it ia conBdently expected that within the near future 
there will be avaihible utiafactory data regardinit every river in the 

Concurrent with, and conUnuoualy corelated to the power inveatiga- 
tiona. haa been the work of gathering atream flow daU, carried on by 
the Irrigation Branch (ReclamaUon Service), of the Department of the 
Interior. Run-off data for all the more important atresma throughout 
the Province ia now available, and haa been invaluable in preparing the 
power eatimatea. 

The water powen of the Province of Alberta are administered under 
regulationi purauant to the Dominion Water Power Act, 1919 Theae 
regulationa provide for the exploitation of the water power reaourcea 
in a way which will enaure the power needa of the Province being met 
to the beat advantage in the public intereat under full government con- 
trol of ratoa, rentala, etc. Theae regulationa absolutely prevent unwiae 
or premature development of water power and provide for the per- 
manent retention in the Crown of the ownership and control of the 
power project. Concesaiona are only made for limited perioda to bona 
Bde applicationa capable of prosecuting the development to a successful 

The policy of the Dominion Water Power Branch, is in brief, to 
encourage deairable development of water power resources; to discour- 
age and prevent the initiation and development of uneconomic and 
wasteful projects; to ensure that each site developed shall utilize or 
provide for the future utilisation of the maximum power available; to 
enaure that river ayatema are developed along comprehensive lines 
wherein each unit ia a component link in a system; to compel the de- 
velopment of existing plants to their limit when the market demands, 
and to promou in every way the fullest conservation of the power 
resources of the West. 

In order to appreciate the conditicis pertaining to power develop- 
ment, a brief reference to the general characteristics of the Province 
is necessary. 

The groat variation between maximum and minimum runoff of the 
rivers in Alberta ia due to the geological and topographical features of 
the Province, and to the temperature ranges. The waters of the aouth- 
ern and central portions of Alberta are collected by the North and 
South Saskatchewan Rivers and carried eastward to Lake Winnipeg, 
and thence by the Nelson River to Hudson's Bay; while those of the 
Northern portion are collected by the Peace and Athabasca Rivers and 
carried to the McKenzie River, and thence to the Arctic Ocean. These 

riven, together with many of their upper tributariet, have their aource 
in the eaatern alopea of thf Roclty MounUina, and are fed from th« 
Itlaoiera ar melted snows. As a result, floods occur during the summer 
months, while in the winter the flow is much reduced. Throughout the 
open pr.-iri. si-^ion, there is little inflow into the river systems during 
the \, i;.ei seasoi.. T variation between the high and low discharges 
It aci rdi'-.ijly veiy pi at and forms an unfavorable feature when water 
nowe. ile^i:lopmert i considered. 

l"- i.nulit'on of Alberta is concentrated chiefly in the central 
and southern portions of the province which area is traversed by the 
main lines of three transcontinental railways, together with several 
branch lines. With the exception of the power sites on the Bow River 
and the Rocky Rapids site on the North Saskatchewan River, none of 
the large power sites lie very close to either the railways or centres of 
population. In the northern portion of the Province the larger power 
sites are not at present easily accessible and are quite distant from 
any cities or towns. 

In addition to its water powers, AlberU is provided with extensive 
areas of coal deposits, which at present provide a cheap source of fuel 
for power generating stations. Oil and gas have alio been discovered 
and are being utilized in some parts of the Province. At the present 
time these fuel resources, in certain localities, can successfully compete 
with the water powers in the generation of electrical energy. 

The water power developmente in Alberta are situated almost en- 
tirely on the Bow River; the total turbine installation being 32.900 h.p. 
Of this amount 31,600 h.p. is installed in the two power plants of the 
Calgary Power Company on the Bow River at Horseshoe and Kananas- 
kis Palls, and 780 h.p. is installed in the plant of the Calgary Water 
Power Company on the Bow River at Calgary. The Municipality of 
Lacombe have 200 h.p. installed in their plant on Louise Creek near 
Lake Louise. Three small grist mills west of Red Deer develop on an 
average about 10 h.p. each. 

In the Province of Alberta detailed power and storage investiga- 
tions have been made on the Bow River west of Calgary, on the Elbow 
River south-west of Calgary, Red Deer River, the North Saskatchewan 
River at Rocky Rapids sixty miles west of Edmonton, the Peace and 
Athabasca Rivers; and reconnaissance surveys on numerous other 
streams throughout the Province. From the data gathered by these 
surveys an estimate has been made of the undeveloped power available 
in Alberta. In estimating the power available only known power sites 
or rapids and falls concerning which some information was available, 
have been included. In nriany cases power investigations have only been 
made on certain rapids or falls and have not yet been extended to cover 
the whole river. As the investigations are continued and later data be- 

cornea available, the power poaaibilitiea of theae rivera may be included 
in the power eitimate. Further inveatigationa may alao reveal the poa- 
albillty of combinina: cerUin natural dropa into one development, or of 
increaamg the head atated at (ivan power aitea; all of which will have 
a tendency to increaae the totala aa eatiinated at preaent. 

The extenaive areaa of linown coal depoaita and the immenae coal 
reaervea of the Province, lying aa they do at the very threahold of the 
more important citiea and towna. provide at preaent a cheap aouree of 
fuel for power generating aUtiona. Aa a result the central ataUon pUnta 
in the Urger communitiea can offer to the conaumer a low and verv 
favorable rate. 

In Alberta there ia at present inatalled a tottl power of 76,800 
h.p., of, which 41,900 h.p., or 56.6 per cent, ia ateam; 32,600 h p or 
43.2 per cent, ia waUr; 1,000 h.p. or 1.3 per cent, ia gas or oil. 

The power available and the power ratea in the Alberta citiea at 
present ia aa followa: 

Calgary— Steam, 14,600 h.p.; Water, 31.600 h.p.; Batea ranse from 
2 eenU to I cents per K.W. hour. 

Edmonton— Steam, 14,600 h.p.: Power rates 3 cents to 1 cent ner 
K.W. hour, less 10 per cent. "^ 

Lethbridge— Steam 5,000 h.p.; Power rates 6 cenU to 2 cents per 
K.W. hour. 

Medicine Hat— Steam, 5,000 h.p.: Rates 6 cenU to 1 cent, with 
graduated discount Peak loads basis $12.00, $18.45 and $26.00 per 
h.p. year. 

The steady indux of people to the cities and to the rural districU of 
AlberU, together with the rapid development of the agricultural lands, 
a. id the ever increasing utilisation of the vast coal areaa, ia bound to 
creaU a heavy and growing demand for manufactured gooda. Thia 
conatantly increaaing market for industrial producta offers possibilities 
to the cities, in manpfacturing lines, which the municipal authorities 
should be quick to realise. Undvubtedly the industrial growth in the 
province will be centred chiellly in the cities where cheap power and 
good transporutlon facilities can be obuined. When it is considered 
that the industry of the Province as a whole largely pertains to agri- 
culture with a conaequent dispersed population, it will probably be con- 
ceded that the chief immediate markets for power will be the cities and 
the mining centres. Calgary and Edmonton are within easy transmis- 
sion disUnce of a limited supply of hydro-electrid power, and are also 
in close proximity to numerous coal mines. To the north and the west 
of Edmonton are located the la^eat and moat important power sites in 
the Province. While the northern country is as yet too unsetUed to 
supply a market for the power, its vast natural resources await de- 
velopment; the proximity of extensive water powers to these resources 

form an asset of exception value which will be realized in their devel- 
opment as the resDurcefl are exploited. 

Alberta poHenea an abundance of coal, most of which liet to the 
south of transcontinental main lines of the Canadian National Railways. 
It should be always kept iii mind that under many circumstances power 
generated from coal-fired steam plants can successfully compete with 
hydro-electric power. In the interests of conserving these fuel re- 
sources of the Province, it is, however, c'esirable that the use of the 
water powers be encouragtrfl by all means possible. 

To sum up, it might be stated that Alberta is well endowed with 
water power resources whose development will eventually be of vast 
benefit to the industrial and commercial, as well as to the domestic life 
of the Province. The location of these undeveloped powers in respect 
to the present centres of population, are in some cases favorable to 
their early development. Each power site or prospect requires, however, 
individual consideration of all circumstances and conditions pertinent 
to its development before iU economic value to the community can be 
definitely decided upon. 

The Land of Promise and 

R. C. Haskins 
Vice-President InternationaJ Harvester Ca 

It is e\oii more of a pleasure and a privilege to be with your 
Association tliia year then I founil it last year. This time I fln.l new 
cratiflcation in wilnessinK how energetically your Association has carrieil 
forwaril its work and how it has broadened its scope; and there is i 
distinct and new pleasure in observing on every hand evidence of the 
substantial and sustained progress of Alberta and of al' Western Canada 

My recollection is that when I was with you last year I made men- 
tion of the fact that I should not and did not feel like a stranger amomi 
you, for the reason that I am Canadian bom. . nd, no matter how 
long he may live elsewhere, one does not, and cannot forget, or forget 
to care about the soil that gave him birth, i have visited Canada very 
many times and have never failed to experience the thrill that come- 
to a mans heart when he sets foot once more upon the .soil of the 

In picking the title for these remark-s— •Western Canailn— the Land 
of and Fulfillment"— I must admit that 1 was chiefly inspired 
by a report which I recently heard made by one of my colleagues, Mr 
A. I,. Upton, Vice-President of the International Harvester Company <.r 
Canadii, Limited. This report has since been reduced to printed form 
and, with the author's permission, I shall i|Uote from it freely. 

Of course Mr. Upton was thinking and speaking of the Canadian 
Northwest from the viewpoint of the Harvester Company, but I do not 
think that fact will affect the value of his remarks for thi? place and 

The es.sence of my colleague's report was how magnificently the 
Canadian Northwest had justified the Company's faith in the farmers 
who pioneered this vast domain and achieved by far the greatest part 
of its development. He told how one of the Company's high officials 
hail said long ago to the hea<l of the Cciadian sales organization: "Judge 
your credits by the land and the man. If the land can be made into a 
farm that will pay ami if the man looks like a worker, the Company 
will take the risk." Anil then he went on to say: 

The soundness of *hat philosophy— for it is more than a 

policy— is very emphatically dtslared by the results. There have 

been fome lean seaKons in the elsrhteen years of the Harvester 
Company's experience with Canada; two and even three consecu- 
tive drouths have occurred over considerable grain area-, leav- 
ing the affected farmers unable to meet their oliigations, 
needing not only credit extensions and even moratoria. but more 
direct help so that they couhl carry on.' But always they have 
wanted to pay; they have always paid when they could. 

■At one time, a few years ago, the Company's faith in the 
future and the farmers of Canada was represented by a to'il 
of notes, chiefly from the prairie country, that ran far into 
millions. Now that total has been reduced by more th.m half. 
In the beginning of the conquest of that wilderness cash 
was scarce; it always is in the pioneer period of any country. 
But, except for the effects of drouth in certain years, the Com- 
pany's reconi of collections shows that the cash percentage has 
climbed steadily with the increase of agriculture and of farm 
prosperity. Putting it broadly, the farmers of Western Canada 
now can and do pay three dollars in cash on a four-dollar pur- 
chase, where fifteen years ago they could only pay one dollar 

It is ju.stice to the Canadian farmers and justification of 
the Harvester credit theory in dealing with them to sav that 
the losses written off in the last fifteen yean repreeent only 
negligible percentage of the total volume of business.' 
From these quotations that I have just given you from my Har- 
vester colleagues report, it seems to me quite clear that the Harvesfter 
Company is a strong witness to the fact that Western Canada is indeed 
the of both promise and fulfillment. 

And when we realiie fully that the prairie provinces of Cana<la 
are but the northwaixl extension of the great prairie country of the 
American Middle West, it is not difficult to forecast what promise they 
hold ami what fulfillment they will render in the future. None of us 
iloubt— anil I will say to you that the Harvester Company never ha-, 
tloubteil— that here will be repeated that miracle of development and 
propres- already achieved in th? prairie States of America--here one 
ilay vill be, and :iot very many years from now— another land of 
magical vet substantial growth, of remarkable yet enduring prosperity. 
I iim <iuite aware that the aspirations of Western Canada as ex- 
pressed and made effective by your Alberta Industrial Development As- 
sociation have in view a good many other things besides agricultuix- 
—all of which is entirely logical and proper. Any community which 
has within it the natural resources of manufacture has not only the 
right but the obligation to exert itself for their development; and It 
has the further right and obligation to seek and to ci:eate the artificial 
resources and conditions of manufacture. 

Now, while I h«ve been associated all my workinit life with farm 
implement manufaceure— have been for eiichteen years a part of the 
great Harveiter manufacturinit institution— my associations and activi- 
ties have always been on the selling and distributing side therefore 
you will understand that when I touch upon the n;anufacturlng side 
of Alberta's development it is not in any way as an expert— in that 
respect I h&ve had no advantage beyond any of you, excepd perhaps 
by way of observation. 

Among these observations, I have seen Chicago jtrow from a 
young, rude, crude city of less than half a million population to the 
rank of America's second and the world's fourth city; I have seen the 
last of the new grain lands of the Middle West brought under the plow, 
and have seen the older farm lands advance from primitive and pas- 
toral phase of cultivation to a degree of agriculture that might almost 
be called scientiflc; I have seen such States as Illinois anil Wisconsin, 
for example, enormously develop their agricultural prosperity and build 
up alongside of it a vast industrial prosperity — and, speaking merely 
as a layman, when it comes to manufacturing, it is my belief, amount- 
ing to a firm conviction, that without agricultural prosperity as a 
foundation these miraculous developments could not have taken place. 
And applying the same logic to the future of Alberta and of West- 
em Canada, t make bold to say— as I think I said to you last year 
—that the present great promise of this great prairie empire will find 
its rich fulfillment by and through agriculture and not in any other 

The Harvester Company does not by any means believe that its 
part in Jhe development of Western Canada is complete. Let me quote 
again from my colleague, Mr. Upton. In closing the report which I 
have mentioned he said: 

"There is no intent in this presentation either to plorify 
the Domnion or to boast about the Harvester Company's 
relation to its agricultural growth. The purpose is to make it 
clear that here, in the last great area of virgin jrrain land 
remaining in North America, still lies a great duty and a preat 
opportunity for the Harvester Company, as well as one of the 
great sources of the world's future food supply." 

And when you no longer have any virgin grain land to bring 
under cultivation — when all your tillable acres are occupied and pro- 
ducing — the development of your agriculture will only have begun, 
.^fter that will come the slower and mere difficult business, of making 
all your acres produce to their full capacity. You will still have before 
you the work of making agriculture a real business — of making every 
farm a factory. 

One of th. m.ny !„,„„, of the w.r, it ,eem. to me, i. .bout 
the ■„,,„„.„„ of .gr,, e*pec..lly ,„ u, in North Am.ric. For 
more thgn h.lf . century-that i, rver .incs the coming of the reaper 
-we h.d pretty well forgotten the meaning ot the word "famine" 
Ihere m,ght be a crop failure here or a food shortage there, but there 
7,y L'J."""^' """'^^"' '>«. ■-) no people or community 
really needed to t,ghte„ it, belt very far. But when practically the 
whole world went to w.r, with million, of sold er. to be fed and with 
milhona of men taken out of food production, and with internal and 
external mean, of communication crippled or denroyed-then we began 
to understand the importance of agriculture; we beg.n to see th.t .fter 
all, the world's principal necessity i, the flnding of its daily bread 
and butter. 

The United States, for all ita standing as the workshop of the 
world .s still most important in the international economic cycle as 
a food producer. And even internally agriculture remaini the greatest 
of all American industries-its farms are still its greatest sources of 
wealth, and agriculture and the secondary phases of food production 
still demand by far the greater part of its labor. 

Last year I mentioned briefly the work that is being done in the 
American States for the development of their agricultural resources 
and the contribution to that work made by the Harvesier Company's 
Agricultural Extension Department. At the present time this work 
has taken on a new importance. As you have doubtless been informed 
the United States, through the reaction of war upon all industry and 
conditions of living everywhere and upon transportation, suddenly finds 
itself confronting a failure of farm production that is apparently bound 
to be followed by a serious shortage of food. I read in my newspaper 
only the other day that so eminent an authority on the subject as Mr. 
Herbert Hoover had predicted a time in which the United States might 
find it necessary to bring part of iu food supply »rom other countries. 
Agencies of various sorts are exerting themselves to the utmost 
to cure the principal cause of this condition, which is a shortage of 
farm labor. It is to be hoped that the sum total of their elforta 
will prove an adequate remedy and that the shortage will not occur. 
But I was much impressed the other day by the opinion expressed by 
Professor Holden, head of our Agricultural Extension Department, on 
this subject. I want to pass along that judgment, to you men of 
Alberta and Western Canada, and to impress it .s forcibly .s possible 
upon your minds, because it is pregnant with value for you as well 
as for us in the United States. 

"The shortage of farm labor." said Professor Holden, "is 
not going to be remedied by any migration, however induced, 
of people from the cities and the towns to the farms. It is . 

condition that wo Amtricana liavc brought upon ourulvM 
throuch many years of unconuioui folly and it will ukf many 
y«an to enr« It." 

The cau* of thii farm labor ihortage, Profeuor Holdr i laid, 
wai mla-education of our rural schooU. 

"H«r« ii what we have been doing," he laid, "for •.!i the 
yean of our common ichool education, we have been saying to 
the farm boy and the farm girl: 'go to school and study and 
, get an education so that you won't have to slave and toil on 
the farm as your father and mother have always had to do.' 
We have used all the great power of our schools to educate and 
draw our sons and daughters away from the farm— and now 
we are beginning to pay the penalty." 

Only in the last few years and in few places, has this Important 
truth been realised. Only here and there has a start been made in 
teaching children in rural schools the possibilities of the soil, love of 
the soil and the true importance and dignity of agriculture. 

I do not pretend to know what your farm labor situation is here 
in Western Canada, but it seems to me that you will do well to avoid 
the sorrowful error by which your American neighbors have brought 
themselves into a situation full of dismal possibilities. It seems to me 
that one of the activities of this Association might well be to examine 
into this question and to do whatever is necessary toward providing 
in the rural schools — or why not even in the city schools? — the kind 
of education that will turn the minds and aspirations of the people 
toward the soil and not away from it. 

I have said that the Harvester Company regards Western Canada 
as the land of still greater promise s id fulfillment for the future than 
it has proved in the past. Let me add that I believe that to be the 
thought of all Americans who have given attention to the remarkable 
development of the last fifteen or twenty years in the northern prairie 

As to those developments I shall quote again from my colleague, 
Mr. Upton: 

"The school boy doubtless knows but the business man 
probably forgets," he said, "the vastness of Canada — forgets 
it is greater in area than the United States, including Alaska, 
but has a population smaller than that of New York, Chicago 
and Philadelphia combined. One half of Canada's people live 
in the cities and towns; the output of her farmers, forests, 
mines and fisheries is produced by a population that averages 
leis than one person the square mile. 

"The total area fit for tillage is placed at 302,200,000 
acres, and of this only 51,400,000 acres, or about one-sixth. 

wu undw crop in 1818. In Uuitota, Sukatchnru wid 
AlUrU, tli«R is ■ tout of 118,0«0,000 mm of nraUt land; 
in 1918 thare wara 2«,a0«,000 aeret undar crop and 26,000.000 
carryinf live itock. There ii room for atttlari on 128,000,000 
acrei of lurvey and arable land, includint 26,000,000 aerei itill 
open for homeiUad entry— an empire ai yet untouched, await- 
ing the men and the plowi to eet free the wealth of ita aoll. 
"One of the moat noUble developraenU in the laat half 
century of the Oominion'i life hai been the >hiftln( of the 
gn. in-growing centre from the eaium to the prairie provinces. 
The 1870 censui ehowed that OnUrlo wai producing 86 per 
cent., of the wheat, oau and barley; Quebec 12 per cent., and 
the maritime province! 21 per cent 

"It wa> not until two years later that the prairies began 
to be a factor in grain productions. In 1880 Manitoba came In 
with 3 per cent. In another ten ytara the westward move- 
ment had become signiflcanL Ontario hi 1890 produced 60£ 
per cent., of the three grains, Manitoba 38 par cent., and the 
Northwest was on the board with 4 per cent. In the following 
decade OnUrio held Its own, Manitoba dropped slightly but 
the Northwest advanced to 8 per cent 

"By 1910 the domination of grain producilon had gone 
definitely and largely to the West, Ontario having but 16 par 
cent.. Manitoba having fallen to 26 per cent., and Saskatche- 
wan having risen to 61 per cent In that year AlberU appeared 
for the first time in the census grain figures, showing 7 per 
cent., of the yield. In 1917 Saskatchewan produced 6« per 
cent, of the Dominion's wheat, barley and oats; Alberta 20 
per cent.; Manitoba about 16.6 per cent, and Ontario only 
1 per cent 

"These percenUges, it should be understood, have to do 
with an ir lortant total production. The record grain year, 
1916, saw a toUl wheat yield for the Dominion of 374,670,000 
bushels and of oats 428.267,000 bushels." 

Those conditions make a noUble foundation for the greater promise 
of Western Canada; they ensure the greater fulflllment 

WhaUver else that fulfillment brings to Alberta ano all Western 
Canada, it must include the agricultural growth which Is the indis- 
pensable basis and accompaniment of true prosperity in a country 
like yours up here and ours down there in the American Middle West. 
I hope— and, I Indeed, believe— that with the development of your 
resources of fuel, of transportation, of population, you will have many 
industrial factories, big and little. But I KNOW that you will have 

' I 

i if 

: t f 


ur. n which .».ry f.rm I. run lik. , bu.;n™.. lik/, oLnt Th^L 

i'^ • wXlr *j"s ■ "^ ""^ '"- "'•"' """«« o . ■b„.^;;.'; 
ior..':;!i'£'';.u.'" "• "'""""^ *"'""'' '- "• "•" •" ".".' 

bock.' ttaVCLi; ""• "J^'""" "»''""■• «rl<^ultur.l .«.n.i.n 

c".n ^'..y'it.'rud"""""" *"""^"'"" "" -' '' ""• "■ -"• '^^ 
tl™ »?", °' ""' i^* •"■" '•"''■■" Holden rh>rK„ up to "deprMi.. 

S. ™" «"'"""., n^lect. .hiftl«.n,..-b.c.u« w. „. "„ 

i». ^""'j """J "' ">»»»" !» ch»rK,d with 1100.000,000 of ihe ne«l'«., 
lo.., and w.«li cott another hundred mlllioni neeil.e.,, 

A" »-> *>» n.«like, i, not efflc ent. i.. not don. „„ the f„t'ry „l." 
-'''"' I -lon't know enough .bout .gricuJture up here to .Zy how 

L.n^.„ 1 K .°"T •""• "" ""'-"••ybe you don't w..te your 

manure! maybe you don't let your farm implemenU ru.t out in the 

Z iu Z; r*"'" T !"" "" *"^' ™ ^o" '""•-^»' • -"- 

^!!li? ?. '""" '" '"■P"™'"'"' •>•". too, in farming method.. 

eom. in fc"^' "" "?; ""•' ' *""" '» •"" ""'«' oPPO'tunitie. to 

»m. up her. occ..,onalIy and witne.. how your proml.. and my pre- 
diction, are working out; I hope it may be my privilege to rejoice with 
you m greater fuMllment of your greater promi... 
I thmnk you. 

Coal Resources and Oil Possiblities 


John A. Allan, M. Sc., Ph. D. 
Univenity of Alberta 

Tht coal and oil rnourcM In thia province ia « very Isrgt aubJMt 
to diacuaa in My brief manner, but this aubject baa been choeen beesuae 
the future development of Weatorn Canada, to a large extant depmda 
on the fuel reaourcea of the country and their proper utililatlon. 

A country to proaper muat have induatriea, and induatriea muat 
have fuel to carry on operationa. Weatem Canada and particularly Al- 
beru h»a the fuel reaervea; ahe requirea additional induitrlet and offtra 
la~ge poaaibilitiea to the manufacturer. 

The natural reaourcea of Alberta are varied and valuable; aome 
have already proven, and othera will be proven in the near future, t« be 
a great national importance, but all of theae natural reaourcea are of 
leaaer importance if the required fuel aupply ia not available, and in 
conaequence haa to be imported great diatancea. 

Of all the minerala known to occur in Alberta, the coal reaourcea 
alone are known with any degree of accuracy. An endeavor ia now 
being made to gather detailed information on the extent and value of 
all the mineral depoiits in AlberU. Wo already know tb tent of the 
varioua coal baaina in AlberU and the quality of the coal . each baain, 
but there ia atill much inveatigatlon to be carried out on the beat uaea 
to wh'ch Weatern Canada coal ia auited, and the commercial by<producta 
which can be obtained from certain coal. Waatage of reaourcea endowed 
upon thia country ia a diaeaae which muat be remedied. 

The oil resources on the other hand are atiU, to aome extent, pro- 
blematic, but indications are auch an would warrant optimiam in dia- 
cussing future poaaibilitiea of this mineral. Some of the reaaons for thif 
optimism will be mentioned after the coal resources have been briefly 

The accurate knowledge of our coal reaourcea in Alberta, eastern 
Rritiah Columbia and Western Saskatchewan^ is largely the reault of 
t'-e laborious field investigations carrie«i on by D. B. Dowling, J. B. 
Tyrcll, R. C. McConnell, G. M. Dawson. Theae men are reaponaibla for 
the first detailed examination, the geological" structure and a real dis- 
tribution of the coal measures. 

Probably the earliest record of the occurrence, of coal in Alberta 
was that made by Sir Alexander MacKenaie in 1789. He found a coal 


M Oraal BMr kivn and anoUwr on Uw lUd Dwr Rivtr near th< 
■ at iMtbod erMk. Thma ar, racordad on a map publlikad In 

In IMO DavW Tbompaon mada a trip from Rocky MounUIn Hou» 
down tk< Saakalchtwan Rivar and raeordad all tha coal acami, but un- 
fortunataly hia nwnoaeript waa not pakliakad until about two yaari aKO 
by Mr. J. B. Tynall. 

In 1841 Sir Gaona Simpaon diicuaiaa the coal at Edmonton and 
noua tkat It waa bainc uaad in tha blackamith ahopa arj wai aa irood 
aa any atkar blaekamlth'a coal. 

Coal waa diaeovarad In tha foothilb In 1845, and poaalbly in tha 
Bankkaad-Canmora diatrlct In tha Banff baain. Sir Jamaa Hactor. 
«aoIo»iat on tha Palliaar axpadltiona racorda coal aaan» on the Atha- 
baaca rirar and tha Pembina rWar In 18«0, near tha lite of the preaant 

Tha coal reaaureat of Alberta have played an important role In the 
early opaninc up and aattlement of the pralriea. The aurveyi for the 
ptvpoead Canadian Pacific Railway acroea the prairie, were beKlnninir 
abo-jt 1878 but no thoucht waa than sivan to tha mining poaaibllltiea in 
Albaru. The pralriea ware not looked upon favorably by the pioneer 
aattlara, who choaa the more wooded diatricta flrat It waa in 187B that 
Dr. Georce M. Dawaon waa aent waat to make the flrat exploration along 
tha IntarnaUonal Boundary line. Hia report that there were great 
aeama in the treeleaa areaa, and hia Kccompanylnft map did much to 
brint about a change in eentiment towarda tha pralriea. Mr. J. B. 
Tyrrell in W and -S* axplor«l what waa then called ■■Northern AiberU'' 
including the Edmonton diatrlct. He mapped all the coal aeams along ' 
the rirm. Thia report and map which ia now a claaaic, greatly aaalated 
in opening up the country, by ihowing the aettlera where coal for fuel 
could be obtained. 

When the firat tranacontlnenUI line reached the mounUini, the coal 
uaad waa being hauled from Ohic. About 1881 the firat coal aeam wa» 
opened at Lathbridge and the flrat coal waa hauled to Medicine Hal, 
and when uaad on the locomotivee waa found to bum. lo a narrow-gauge 
railway waa built to Lethbridge and the mine waa opened up. In '82 and 
"83 the flrat mine waa opened at Anthracite and Canmore in the Caacade 
and Bow valleya. Thia coal waa need in the heavy conatruction work of 
the railway in the mounUina. It ia a fact that had the plaina and foot- 
hilb not conUined coal anitable for locomotive purpoaea, that much of 
tha railway conatruction work wiv. on the monntaina would have had to 
have been poatponed until a later date. 

Thia brief biatorieal aketek ia added to akow that the presence of 
extanaive aeama of coal, and the pioneer development of the coal re- 
aonreaa have aaalated materially in opening up and in aettiing part of 
Weatam Canada. 

• At ■ mult of Iht Importance of coal In tht future Indualrkl d<- 
vilopmtnt of tht country tb> rnourcei of thli mineral have boon itudM 
in (r^Mr diuil than any of the other mineral reiourcei, and at an 
earlier data. 

In makinf an eitlmate of the coal reiourcee in any area It i« 
neeeiaary to determine the areal distribution of the coal-bearini for- 
matlona, and the approximate thlckneii of thf coal leami throuchout 
that area. Thii itratiKraphlcal information hai already been obUinad 
In AlbarU and the diitrlbution of the co»l-be«rlng formationi mapped 
at accurately ai the (eological knowlediti' lo daU will warrant. It ia 
not my purpoic to dlicuii the origin of coal at thii time, but only to 
point out that coal ii formed on the lowlandi along the ihore of the tea, 
Inland awampi or lakei, and In lome eaiei in covei and bayi on the tea 
ihore where driftwood haa accumulated for geological periode and alowly 
tranaformed into coal. ThI. latt type can be leen today along the thore> 
of Vancouver Iiland and the coait of Britiih Columbia. 

In AlberU there are three ImporUnt coal horliona in the CreUceoui. 
Theae horiioni are in moat localitlei separated by ahale formationi of 
marine origin. There are no Carboniferoua coal formationt In Alberta 
and there are no CreUceoui coal seami in Eaitern Canada. There are 
occaaional leami of coal in the lower Tertiary in Alberta, but theie are 
not regarded ai valuable ai the coal in a medium or low grade of lignite. 
In Saikatchewan there are workable leami of lignite near the baie of 
the Tertiary. An experiment i> now under coniideration in Southern 
Saikatchewan to utlliie thii Tertiary lignite by carboniiatlon and briq- 

The Cretaceoui coal leami in Alberta occur In the following for- 

1. Edmonton formation (Uppermost Cretaceous) 

2. Belly River formation (Middle or Upper Cretaceous) 
:t. Kootenay formation (Lower Cretaceous) 

When discussing the quality of the different coal in Alberta It is 
very Important to remember that there are three distinct coal bearing 
horizons within this province, each belonRing to a different geological 
age, and separated from each other by formations from 700 to 3,000 feet 
in thickness. It is also important to bear in mind that the Rocky Moun- 
tains form the western side of the province, so that a seam of coal 
which is lying nearly horizontal and undisturbed east of the foothills, 
becomes a pitching seam, more Intensely compressed and fractured by 
the effects of mounuin building forces, where it occurs In the inner 
foothills or within front ranges of the Rocky Mountains. 

The coals from these various horizons differ in grade and quality. 
Those from the lower and therefore older formation! on account of 
their age. and of the greater weight to which they are lubjected by 

; I i 

^ 1 r 

•■ i A 

that towrrtte wett ?hi L™, "T"""- '^'' " "•» ^^ "» '«* 

«.»„. h.. ,t be™ expr«.ed that Albert, coal i, prta™!™. Zite 
minrng i„du.try m Alberta. Lig„ite a. it i. „,„.t ™ J„„„,y def „^ " 
Zr /a>L'!1""';" O*"™*"*' »' the pre.ent annual output fro™ the 
.v.r ^?- '". ""'" '° "''"""■' "•■' ■""'«'«■• »« of term" let 

uI7on"*oth ' '" "' """' " • ■""'" '» «0'""°" which h.T beln 

?Z ?h V ,!^' "■•/■"'"m value of the coal content, which i. mad. 
from the knowledge of the coal .earn, to date, but only a fair p.reenC 
age of the total edimate will ever be mined. 

r».i?.' '^°""? °f *"""' ""'•'"' ''"•"' »«™nteen per cent, of the 
coal reaervM of the world, and eighty-seven per cent, of the coal 
reaerve, of Canada. It i. al.o estimated that about ninety-aix ^e, ce" 
of the coal reaerve. of Canada lie We.t of the Great Lake. Mr. Dowling 

»86^ million ton. covering an area of 25,300 «,uare mile., and a 
probable reaerve of about 673,660 million ton. of coal over an are. of 
6«JI76 «, mile.. Thi. make, a total re«rve of 1.069,»10 million tona 

r„„r!j ? ; "T'""- ^'' '" "" """'"' "KU-n'-t in favor of 
of s?.t«T P'o-J^'t'on within the province t. .apply the entire dem.nd 
of S«ltat<:hew.n, Manitoba, and pouibly Weatera Ontorio. 

nri„,r'>i '!!;"' I™' ""'"""• «■=" "narrow band, and art worked 
prmcipally wrthm the front range, of the Rocky Mountain., or in the 
footh.lI. clo.. to the ea.tem eacarpment of the mountain.. The.e meas- 
ure. con.>.t chiefly of .emi-anthracite and bituminou. coal, with a .mall 
amount of anthracite of undefined extent. The Kootenay coal bMin. 

ri : T"" ""*• ''-'■«f»'°« ""d Moo.e Mountain, which incJ! 
deiwait. on the upper part of Sheep River and River; Banff 
Main which include. B.nkhead, Canmore and Anthracite; Bra«au Bie 
horn and MounUin Park; Brule Lake and Pochahonta.; Smoky River north of the Athabasca river. 

Numerou, analyse, have been made from Alberta coal, but in many 
caae. analy.i, from the .ame c«il .eam and even from the mine 
have varied greatly in percentage of con.tituenta and in the h«iting 
value.. Mr. Jchn T. Stirling. Chief In.pector of Min«i, ha, unde^ken 

mine."! "ZZ "J.™ "' """' °' *' °"*"" '""'«"'" '""■ «" th" 
mine, n Alberta; theae .ample, are being analyaed at the Induatrial 
Laboratories, Univer.ity of Alberta, by Mr. J. A. Kel.o. By thi. .y.tem 
more uniform re.ult. .hould be obtained. The re.ulta to date are given 
in the Pirat Annual Report on the Mineral Reaource. of Alberta" which 
has been publi.hed a few day. ago. 

Some of the analyae. made from .ample. recenUy collected from 
ine Kootenay measure, are a. follow.: 

(1) Crow'. Ne.t (13 .ample.) 
Moi.ture, 0.6 to 3.2 

Volatile Matter, 24.1 to 28.9 
Fixed Carbon, 52.9 to 68.6 
Ash. 6.1 to 17.4 
B.T.U.. 11,940 to 14,140 

(2) Banff 
Moi.ture, 0.6 
Volatile Matter, 8.6 
Fixed Carbon, 80.0 
A.h. 10.8 

B.T.U.. 13.600 

(3) Mountain Park 
Moi.ture. 0.8 to 0.9 
Volatile Matter, 26.5 to 29.9 
Fixed Carbon, 62.8 to 67.7 
A.h. 6.0 to 6.4 

B.T.U.. 14,190 to 14.830. 


: i t. 

(4) Smoky River Buin 

Moiitun, 0.3 to 2.9 

Volatile Hatter, 12.5 to 22.6 

Fixed Carbon, 63.4 to 82.6 

A>h, 1.0 to 16.5 

B.T.U., 12,000 to 14,600 
The samples from Sraolty River were collected by Mr. J. McVicor, 
and analysed by the Geological Survey. This basin is still out of reach 
of transportation, but field investlKations indicate that it is the' lariceat 
basin in AlberU that remains undeveloped. 

The coal measures in the Belly River formation are mined in the 
vicinity of Lethbridge, but other exposures occur in the vicinity of 
Medicine Hat, the lower part of the Red Deer river, the south and north 
Saskatchewan Rivers where these streams cut through the Belly River 
formation. The area in ^Iberta underlain by the Belly River coal seams 
is very much larger than the actual outcrops would indicate. At Edmon- 
ton the Belly River coal seam has been located by drilling at 1,400 feet, 
and at Tofield the corresponding seam occurs at 1,050 feet. It will be 
some 4ime however, before the Belly River coal seams are mined' at 
such a great depth so long as equally suitable coal can be obtained at or 
near to the surface. These measures are distributed over 26.974 square 
miles, and contain an actual and probable reserve of 189.450 million tons 
of coal, which ranges from bituminous to sub-bituminous. 

The analysis from nine samples from Lethbridge basin gave: 

Moisture, 8.7 to 11.8 

Volatile Matter, 30.7 to 39.8 

Fixed Carbon, 39.3 to 50.6 

Ash, 5.7 to 18.2 

B.T.U., 9,330 to 10,880. 
The Edmonton formation repre.sents the uppermost member of the 
Cretaceous, which is roughly triangular in outline in Alberta with the 
widest portion in the vicinity of Edmonton. There arc two coal horizons 
in this formation which cover a maximum area of probably 52.406 square 
miles. The actual coal reserve is estimated at 383,697 million metric 
tons, and a probable reserve of 417,261 million metric tons. Thfe upper- 
most coal seam occurs near the top of the formation and varies in thiclt- 
ness from about five feet south of the Bow River, to a maximum of 
twenty-five feet on the North Saskatchewan River west of Edmonton. 
The ui(per seam is worked at Pembina and at other loiialities towards the 
foothills. About 500 to 600 feet below the upper seam a number of coal 
seams occur near the base of the formation. These seams are known to 
occur from the International boundary northward to the vicinity of 
HorinviUe, north of Edmonton. Coal is mined from these seams at 
Drumheller, Tofield, Edmonton, Clover Bar, Sturgeon Valley and Morin- 

Th. quality of the coal in the Edmonton meiiurea is chiefly aub- 
bituminous but there is some area of bituminous and also .ante lirnites 
The term "Domestic Coal" has been applied to the xrade of material 
mined from this horizon. 

No. of 












Clover Bar 






















10,225 ' 



I Alberta are unimportant and the quality 

The Tertiary coal seams 
of the coal is lignite. 

The coal supply in Alberta is for the most part unlimited and the 
quantity already mined is negligible. In 18S1 Alberta produced about 
1,600 tons and in 1918 the produ..ion was 6,148,620 tons. Since the 
beginning of mining operations in this province the output haa been 
only 66,700,000 tons. The waste in mining has been very high, but an 
endeavor is being made to reduce the loss in mining to a minimum. In 
the 1918 Annual report of The Mines Branch, Mr. J. T. Stirling, states 
that during the last fifteen years "100,484,038 tons of coal have been 
affected by mining operations" of which 47,227,498 tons were extracted 
and 26,628,770 tons have been "lost beyond any chance of recovery". 

Oil PoealUUtiea 

At no time in the history of the world was such a persistent search 
ever made for natural reservoirs of petroleum as in the current year 
1920. With the ever increasing uses for petroleum as liquid fuel for 
motive power on the land, the sea and in the air; for illuminating pur- 
poses, for power and lubrication in industry, for chemical manufactories, 
for preservatives and for road making, the demand is fast exceeding the 
production, and, what is more serious, the known supply in reserve. 
These cold facta are causing governments and especially large oil cor- 
porations to give serious attention to a search for possible new fields 
in almost every country the world over. 

Many read«rs were startled with the statement in a recent numbm 
of the Engineering and Mining Journal by Mr. J. D. Northrop, a well 
known American geologist that although the United States produced in 
1919 over 330,000,000 barrels of petroleum, yet the "petroleum produc- 
tion in the United States is expected to reach its maximum this year and 
to decline steadily thereafter," unless new sources of petroleum art 
discovred. Today the United States has about 62 per cent "f the 

- i 

worid • .upply, wh.l. Mexico and Ru.,i. have about 20 per cent. Cai,«l. 
1. today the mo.t unproven and largely unproipected country 
f« potroleum. The po«ii6iliti,. of fiading r„ervoir. of petroleum a« 
^nrVM*!"" ?"•"" """ ""«'•'"' '" ^"«"«' "-" i" -y 0th" 
Icc^muLfonl * '*'™' '""""' " """""• '" Petroliferou. 

C..^*"1T- "•"!", ""'"'"K'''y ">* ""«Wy the »«.t are. in We.tern 
of n.^„l™» '"„r.t*'^'" "" '»""'«»"• '"if ">« 'o' the accumuhiUon 
Of petroleum, and the numerous .eepage, of oil and gas throughout this 

Z.'"',"T,^!f "T .' °"' '""■""* «"'"• ■»»". including the greater 
r„ » H .^"^ k"" "" ?'"* M«Kenzie basi, and part, of SasLtche- 
wan and Manitoba, one i. compelled to become instilled with the most 
sincere optimism a. to the possibilities ■ of discovering reservoirs of 
petroleum in this part of Western Canada. 

The question is naturally asked why are there possibilities of flnd- 
ing petroleum over such an expansive area in Western Canada. Time 
doe. not permit to give you the geological details of this region but 
permit me to say that between the Rocky Mountains on the west and 
the great Canadian or Laurentian complex of Pre-Cambrian rocks on 
the east and northeast, there is a broad trough-like structure, capped 
by sedimentary rocks of Cretaceous age and underlain by older Paleoioic 
sediment.. This structure prevails from the Gulf of Mexico to the mouth 
of the MacKenzie basin. Many productive oil fields have been discovered 
and developed along the Western Phiins of the United StaU. The 
northward continuation of these beds has stimulated investigation in 
the Western and Northern plains of Canada because natural aceumuU- 
tions of minerals are not confined to political boundaries. 

It is true that the structure of the oil-bearing areas in eastern 
Colorado and Wyoming are more directly due to mountain building up- 
lift "as well as to the effect of tangential pressure, while to the north 
(in Montana and Alberta) the deformation is largely due to tangential 
stresses," to quote D. B. Dowling in a recent number of the Canadian 
Mining journal. 

The problem of working out the most suitable structure In Alberta 
and the MacKenzie basin is extremely difficult on account of the paucity 
of outcrops and the thick veneer of glacial debris and expansive muskegs, 
so that development must of necessity proceed more slowly than it 
would if the structure would be more readily determined. The excellent 
work of the Geological Survey of Canada in previous years has assuted 
greatly in directing attention to certain areas in Alberta and the Btac- 
Keniie, but it is with the deepest regret that I must record that for the 
current year at least, Aeld investigations by the Federal Geological 
Survey have ceased in the area containing oil possibilities, due to the 
fact that at least eight and possibly ten of the best trained geologista on 

. 1 


CMd^nT"' ""." """ '"*"*^ °" «"""' »' in.ufflci.„t mUo- t. 

rr.r.;rerr "■- ^"" -" '- -'""-- "'-«»• » 

tio„rrj!^l ""''•<"?» """"•" •' ">'• point that the regretful indign.- 
tion of geoloK,.t. .„d .cienti.t. .„d those intereeted in Science .ar3^ 
by the recent mformation from Ottaw.. that atep. are S t^krto 
mm.n,u, and po..ibly diacard the vertebrate .ec ion of h! N.tL^ 
Muaeum, wh eh contain, the world famoua dinoeaurian f„,.il. which 

hL^.!! , ' f [ V^ "'"' "' '•'■orious Held and laboratory work 
d,rect«l largely by the effort, of the late Uwrence M. u"b 

or .«I'!r""* 'or petroleum ha. been going on in Alberta with more 
or ... vgor .mce the boom day, of 1914. but it wa. only 1..T .uZ« 

ttlTJ^J^Tk "■"'"''' "' '"""'y KMlogical partie. are or will be in 
four dnll. wll be operating early thi. ,e,.on, .ome are being conTteucJ 


i. operation thi. .ummer o„ the norti .tore ^f'c'eat Slave Uk'eneTth: 
With the daU now available it i. not yet poasible to .av wher. th. 

ars-^ritrL-oiit '""'"f- -^'"'^ ^^ ^^»' '-- 

drillinr^ Th. t "'"^ horizon, are too deep to warrant 

r^over. gaaoline from the natural ga., ten degree, 1 ghterthanAe 
ord nary commercial g..oline. The Southern Alberta crhave'l^n 
refmery ,n the field which produce, ga.oline. kero«ne and a ditti U^ 

f«t aVr "'"'• ''^''■.■■"'' " »" «■=>" ha; been proven ^bottl^^o 
feet; at Clar a well la being drilled by the Imperial Oil win, » ■ ■ 
r«,ult., while at Monitor and Birch Lake derrick' are "^^k"^""""* 
.tructed. (6) Peace River Field in the v.cin y „f .he tl. "^""■ 
developed. Several well, have been drilled anTrLavy t. ' Tl L w' 
encountered near the bottom of the Crot^ceouB uJm^oVm^^ 

th* lurfice. (B) Grut Slave Lak« field ii beina: actively proapMted thii 
■eaion and the drilUns at Windy Point by tlie Imperial Oil will probably 
prove part of thia Held thii seaaon. (7) Lower MacKeniie Baain, in- 
cludea the largeet and leait known poiiible fleld. Thia well being drilled 
near the mouth of the Bear River at Fort Norman is the pioneer well 
and will be completed thie lummer. (8 1 Athabaaca field containa the 
moat extenaiva and most remarkable natural deposit of semi-liquid 
asphaltum in the form of aandstones saturated with bitumen and former- 
ly known aa "Tar Sands'*. The McMurray sands form the base of the 
Cretaceous and rest upon the upper Devonian, The bituminous sands are 
expoaed alone the, Athabasca River from McMurray for nearly one 
hundred milea. The proven areal extent of this formation is upward] of 
10.000 square milea and possibly 16,000 square miles. The formation 
varies from 125 to 225 feet in thickness and the bitumen content ranges 
from twelve to twenty-one per cent, with an average of about 16 per 
cent, bitumen. In thia formation there are poisibly 189 cubic miles of 
saturated sands. Assuming that one ton of sand will give ten gallon* of 
oil according to tests made, a simple calculation shows that this volume 
of sand would repreaent over 400,000 million barrels of oil or about 800 
times the annual production of petroleum in the world. 

Without relying on such figures we must realize that in this fleld 
ulone there is a natural supply of enqi;mous volume. The great pro- 
blem to be BOlved before thi« reserve can be utilized is to And processes 
of extracting this solid petroleum from the bituminous sands on a com- 
mercial basis. Thia is one of the largest problems which we have con- 
fronting us today in Western Canada. A special endeavour will he made 
thia year to successfully investigate thia problem at the Industrial 
Research Department at the University of AlberU, but research on these 
sands is alao being carried on in the United States and in Great Britain. 

I am fully convinced that the strenuous efforts which are being 
made to And petroleum in the various localities mentioned will ultimately 
prove successful even though the quantity in any one field may be small. 

Canada's Einpire of the North 

Hon. Frank Oliver 

Mr. Chairman, ladies and gentlemen: 

I alnunt think that it is' Uking an undue advantage of Innocent 
visitors who have come amongst us from a long distance and with the 
best of intentions to inflict upon them a series of speeche* oommencing, 
I believe, twenty-four hours ago in this building and being continued 
at this hour and for some time longer, I understand. However, those of 
you who are visitors came, I suppose, to spy out the land, to see whit 
there was to be seen, and to carry back with you the best information 
you can get. You have travelled a very long distance through our 
Western country but it is a big country; you cannot go over it all, and 
so I have been deputed to give you such idea as may be in regard to 
that country which lies to the North of this, the most Northerly point 
of the journey that you are in the process of taking. 

It may have struck you already, as a result of your travels, that 
Canada is quite a large country and I am not so sure that I have not 
heard a tone of suggestion that a good deal of that site was really of 
no material advantage. Now, let me take the view that for a country 
to be great in these times of combines and mergers, both political and 
commercial, it has to be big and that an appreciation of the siie of onr 
country as well as of the variety of conditions which prevail throvghout 
its vast areas is of necessity of advantage to every man who hopes to 
have part in our future progress and particularly it must be of interest 
to that portion of the community represented here by the delegates of 
the Manufacturers' Association because, as my friend Mr. Parsons said 
last night, the Manufacturers manufacture, they hope, for everybody, 
and so they, above all other members of the community, are interestad 
in the extent and the well-being and the possibilities of every part of 

their country. ^ ^. , , . 

In order to speak with understanding, or m order that I may be 
able to convey the ideas that I desire in regard to the North country, 
the country that you have not seen, I am more or less compelled to 
bring before your mind from one or another angle of vision that part 
of the country which you have seen. I am going to ask you to ]ud(e 
of what you have not seen by that that you have seen. In regard to the 
extent of country, you travel on the train and you see a vast sameneil, 
going across the plains, and that sameness of scenery lacks intereat; it 
is monotonous; to some it may be depressing. That all depends on the 



point of vl«w boeauo when you coniidtr that th»t umontu mMni ■ 
continuity for ■ diiUnn of upmrdi of « thouund riIIm of tha poui- 
bility of wheat fleld afUr wheat Held, producing that which in all the 
aicei of the world ii the aupport of mankind and today lUnds In the 
place of cold aa It never did before, then perhapi you realiie that the 
sameneaa haa a ralieviag feature and that to have one quarUr-aection 
after another of fertile aoil aocceeding for eight hundred of a thouaand 
milea is, after all, better than to have it broiien by granite ridges, by 
■andy plaina, or by tracts of useless country. I asli you to look at the 
great plains not aa comparing their scenery with that of Switserland 
but I ask you to look at the great plains as carrying the possibility of 
the maintenance of human life in alnoot unparelled expanaion, food and 
fuel, which are the first necessities ot all mankind, and on these great 
plains from the Red River to the Rocky MounUins you find one of the 
greatest, if not greatest stretiih of continued possibility of wheat pro- 
duction that is found in the known worM; and wlien you reach the rise 
towards the Rockies in the Province of AlberU, as has already been said 
but I will take the liberty of repeating, you find underlying the country 
an abundance and superabundance of fuel supply such as has no equal 
In extent, quality or, I will say, actual value in any other sing?- country 
in the world. Therefore, 1 ask you to measure the country you hi,,^ not 
seen by the country you have seen and measure the country that you 
have seen by the sUndards that I have taken the liberty of placing 
before you today. 

May I trespass on your time a little longer to speak of this country 
that you have seen. Hay I bring to your attention a feature that must 
be of vaat interest to the Association of Manufacturers of Canada, be- 
cause they are intimately and deeply interested in this phase of the 
question that 1 pijpose to place before you. Perhaps some of yon have 
seen the celebrated picture of "The Han with the Hoe" or perhaps you 
have read Harkham's poem diacussing the disabilities and disadvantages 
from which "The Man with the Hoe" was suffering. The "Han with 
the Hoe," in the mind of the painter and of the poet, represented Agri- 
cultural effort and in the mind of both painter and poet it was not an 
inspiring sight Let me say to you that the day of the Man with the 
Hoe is passed, that if the world depended today for its food supply 
upon men working with hoes the world would starve. The Man with the 
Hoe is a back number; it is the application of labor and energy and 
enterprise, skill and machinery, the appliances of science and industry 
to th- production of food on these vast plains of. Canada and on those 
of the United States — it is that that has made possible the maintenance 
of the present civilisation throughout the world on the basis of ite 
present food supply. Do not think of the farmer of the prairie west 
as you think of the farmer, we will say, in the Eastern Provinces, 

wkatkw It b* Ntw Bnuuwlck, Qu»b«e or OnUrio. Th« Utmn of tk* 
pniri* mat aint ilosl wltk eoaditloni m ho flndi thorn and undor thooo 
ooaditlono ho moot opplir oapiul and machlnory; ho moot apply powor 
far wror and abovo and bayoad anythinc that ho him-olf can jrifinato 
witk kio haado or bo eanaot produco tho broad of tho world. Aa a 
aatlar of fact, not to labor tho arcnmont, but aa a mattor of fact, man 
far maa tbroiwbout tbo fralrio woot oTor which you havo travolM, 
thoro la a (root food prodiwUon par hoad of man on tho land within that 
aroa than aoywhoro olw In tho world. (Applaiiao). That, aa I havo 
aaid. la poaolbla bocaoao of tho onorgy, tho onterpriu, tho akill, tho In- 
troataiont of tho raon on tho land, and it la poaaiblo boeauao of tho in- 
vontion and tha applleation of Scionco and Indnatry In tho provialon of 
labor-aaTlni applianeaa aucb as wero not hoard of only a vary few yoara 
a«o. Pooaibly In tka Provlneo of Quoboc on lomo of tho narrow farma 
thoro ono man wltk ono horao la tho working forco. Cono Into Ontario 
and tha man with two boraaa la tha working forco, bnt come out on to 
tfcoaa Waatorn plalna and tko man, to bo an export farmer on the Woatara 
philne, must drl»a four to alx horaea or he must be able to run a tractor 
when conditions are favorable. In order to get the labor of hie six 
honaa that thia ono man drives be must have correapondlng machinery, 
implomenU. applianeaa of aU kinds and conditions must be suitable for 
operation in that way. Tho farming industry of these Western plains Is 
on an abaolutoly different footing from what it is today in Eastern 
Cuiada or what H waa In the Wootora plains twenty or thirty yean ago 
I am saying this to these manufacturing delegates for the purpose of 
impressing upon them how important It la to the man on tho land that 
he shall be able to aoeure tho maehanieal appliances that are necessary 
for bis successful prodoetion at tho lowoot posaible price. His Investment 
la greater in proportioB to his numbers thail it is anywhere elese in the 
worU, therefore, his invaatment most be at the lowest llgure or the 
price most come out of tha consumer; and let me say this again, while 
I do not wish to Introduce any suggestion of controveisial argument, let 
me point this out that this man handles his six horse team with his big 
Invaatment of thonsanda of doUars In agricultural machinery in order 
to make those vast acreages, with a scattered house here and there and 
yonder, all productive, that this man when he has made that investmenb 
when he has taken all the chances of hail and frost and draught and 
graashoppers and every other adverse condition that comes to him, he 
must sell his product at the market price that the world offers. There 
Is no protective toriif for him. Now, is It to bo expected that this man 
wHi look at tho queotlon of tariff from the same point of view aa the 
man who geta the benefit of the tariff? He cannot; it is impossible, and 
I am taking the liberty of putting this view of the case before you 
gantlemon, not as a mattor of contention but as a matter of fact so 

' 'is 

^1 i 

K> if 

that you will undadsUnd exactly what Um aituaUon it. N«w, tf I am BOt 
traapaaiinc too lonit. let me diienaa another quaation in rat*i4 ta tWa 
Waatam country. I aaid wa laeli eeanary, Jadcad by the itandardt at 
•ome QtWn couatrioa, bat wa have oppertnity and wa hsva poaalbillty 
for the tupport of human life wkkk aaaaa th* baildliw aC a natlan. 
Becauae Bnrpt alwayi had a erap of wheat Mnrpt waa graa* la eMUaa- 
tion for thouaands of yean, bacanea it ia open wheat that turn and ehrl- 
iiiation. depend; and in thia vaat country from the Wti Mm ta «fe* 
Rocky MounUina, with our «oaalbilitlee of wheat prodnetton, it it hm, 
having the foundation, that we hope and expeet to bniU up a race. 
Now. it thii race of men that it baint produced |x thia Waatein couBtry 
of an inferior character or oalibre? Beeauta, after all, tlMt it the par- 
poee of the orcaniiation of a natiaa, the buiUlnr of the rack I will not 
labor the point but let me aay that the people of the Weet are Caaadiant 
and if I malie a dittinetien I would lay they are more thoroufUy Can- 
adiant than our fellow citiiant in the Eatt, for thii reaton, that the 
man who wat bom in the Eatt it a Canadian by accident of birth but 
the man who hat come to the Weet it a Canadian by choice, by dotar- 
mination, l>y intention, by expeetatiOQ. by vote, by everything that laada 
a man on. Thoae of ut who ctme from Baotem Canada or from the 
Old Country to thit prairie Welt, we had ail the World to (O to tf tn 
pleated; the United Statca had beckoned milliont, or over a million of 
our own native iMm Canadiant; th«y had found room and opportunity 
there. We came to the Canadian Weat not becauae we could not Had 
opportunity eleawhere but becauae we wanted to help to build up our 
own country and to make Canada great in thia part where there it room 
and opportunity to make her great Sectionaliim! There it no tectlon- 
alitm in thit W^tem country to far at C - ada it concerned nor, will 
I aay it, to far at the Empire it concemei ' am not one of thoee who 
trade on patriotiam but there are people m do and perfaapt It la no 
harm, in thit Hamoriai Hall, built to con n^^mmorate the tervieea of the 
men who offered their iivet and all they hed in the eauaa of human 
liberty and of the tecurity of the Empire, to point out that from the 
Red River to the Rocky Mountaint, and in no place more to than right 
hero where we ttand, at what hat been tuppoted to be the outpoat of 
civilization, there wat no plr.ce in all Caiuda where the retponta wat 
more prompt or more general or more enthutiaatic to the call of 1914 
than right here in Edmonton and in all thit country. (Applaute). One 
of the tint taattalioni o reach Val Cartier, I think the third or fourth 
t reach there, was the battalion from Edmonton, furthest of all away, 
and it wat down there 1.800 ttrong. with their accompanying mounted 
corpt of Alberta Dragoons with them at the tame 'cimf. Whan it comet 
^o talking patriotism, ladiea and gentlemen, we do not talk patriotiam 
but if the question is raited it it no harm to have it uudentood that 

pstrtotlam for Canada and Um Empira burni ai brtffhtly tvcn on thacc 
dull plaini aa in any other part of Caniula and, wtU I dart to say. oven 
mora to. Juat on* furUmr.word on that point; in thtta plains wc art 
a nation of immigranta, to they uy. but not all; the proccai of ttttla- 
mtnt of this prairl* Waet haa been long. There it a native bom popu- 
lation growing up in thit prsiria Watt, in thit old tattled town of Ed- 
monton, and will I tay that the toggeetion that the reiponte to the call 
to arma in 19U in Eattem Canada wet chiefly by our Britlth immi- 
grantt; I will tay that that doet not hold in thit Weetem country and 
that from thit town of Edmonton and from and to and of the prairie 
weat the native bom retponded to the Artt call and to the latt call at 
enthuaiattically. at unanimouily at any other taction of the eommunt^. 
I need not call attention to the G«nat.-*l on the phitform with hit tlaeva- 
leaa coat (Applause); he it one of the native bora who certainly anawar- 
cd the call, and he will tay that he wat only one repreaantative of a 
whole clait or of a community. One of the ftrtt men to fall on the 
Weatem front waa « native bom ton, a half-breed from Lake Athabaaea, 
300 mileo north of Edmonton, who answered the flrat call and who laid 
down hit life, one of the very Artt in that itruggle on the Weatem 
front. So, ladies and gentlemen, I have taken the liberty of dealing 
with theae queationt with you so that the ground thall be ctaarad for 
what I detire to tay in regard to the country of the North, that you 
will know that you !iave part in the building of a country that it great 
both in ita poatibilities and itt people, in the part that you have taan. 
and that therefore you will be willing to believe me when I tell you in 
regard to the part that you have not teen. 

From Winnipeg to Edmonton it 800 miles, 800 milei of unbroken 
fertility, of unbroken pottibillty of production. From Edmonton to 
Hudacm't Hope, northweat^ly, it 400 milet, again an unbroken ttretch 
of poaaible production, not it it true, prairie country all the way bat 
still a country that it within climatic and toil conditiont capable of the 
table production at the country from the Red River to Edmonton. It 
it a fact that the line of temperature and the line of potaibiUty doet 
not run Eiaat and Wett but runt northwest and at a fact in the Peace 
River country. 400 milet northweat from Edmonton, the leavet come on 
the treat at quickly; the grain is town in the ground as soon; conditions 
of cultivation are jutt aa favorable aa they art on the banki of the 
Red River IhZOO miles further south and east You say that it a large 
order; produce the proof- The proof it that of last seaton'i crop in the 
Feacf> River country the Edmonton A Dprvegan Railway has brou^t 
out up to date 1,800 carloads of wheat, oata and barley, that it tince 
Augutt latt; of which 700 cart are wheat, 1,100 cars are oatt and the 
ronainder barley and the oata are brought out, in large measure, for the 
purpose of seed throughout the rest of the prairie wett; and the pro- 

I I 

i ! 

JTJ r • ".""' " ■'*" •*• '""" f'"^'" on «!•• InUrn.Uon.1 
b«j^r, n« «utt. f I^kbrw,. ,. El P... T.„.. „ .hrSlCn 
bwdw. Th«^ ,, . MntinMtlon pf ■cricultur.l po»lblIlt(M ,«. .f 
•«ri.ultar.l f. ..<.-ctlM, !«««, th. R«1 H|»er .ml Hu.l.on> Hop, „„ 

SutM; thi. !• lom. eoontrr. l.dlM .nd nntl.m.n; it I. worth ulkhw 
.boat: It I. worth working for; ud It hold, out pOMtbllltl*. for th. future 
that corulnly .r. worthy of conilderatlon. 

•.< ^*' u**L'^' "'""• " "" ""'•'»•'" «* V,rn,llion. In Town- 
ihlp 108, r«!k<m«l from th. Int«n.t;onia bound.ry-th.t doe. not mnn 
«B»thln» poMlUy to M.tnn mm but It t.lli .netly .11 .bout It to 
thM. who .r. f.nilll.r with th. Dominion l.nd .y.tom of .urv.y_Fort 
V.rmlllon on th. Loww P«c. Rlvn- I. In townthlp lOD or, In oth.r 
word., S25 mil., furth.r north th.n th. CItv of Edmon 
ton. Edmonton If 810 miln north of th. Int.m.t!on.l bound.ry line and 
at Fort Varmillon on Pnc. River p»ple h«v. b«n nliinK whe.t 
for ov.r thirty yam and th.y have had a 1... proportion of failure. 
In that pniod than poaaibly any other part of th. pralrl. we.t For two 
year. In •uccn.ion Mr. Sherid.n brouvht hi. .urplui wheat 
erop up th. P.M. Rivm to Pnc. RIvct town by .te.m«r and th. wheat 
ralawl 260 mtl« from railway tnd 326 mlla north of Edmonton wa. 
add«l to th. food .upply of th. world. Thi. ynr Mr. Uwren*. brought 
up for ul. at Pmc. River a car load of fat nttl. and V.nnllion In thi. 
y«r of poUto .carcity, .hippwl Muth . thouunJ buahel. of potato., to 
help the .hortage In thi. mora aouthem country where our potatoes In 
large mearare, wwe caught by the urly winter and late fall Now th. 
condition, at V.rmlllon. 300 mil.i north, ar. .itaUiahMl a. balng' not 
only a. favorable for agriculture but a. mor. favorable for agricultur. 
than on the Intnnational boundary 300 miln to th. aouth, >o that In 
•tnd of getting away from th. poHlbllltle. of agriculture by golns 
north you are grtting into a mor. favorabl. and bsiutmI condition for 
agricultural production than In th. uuth. In regard to this mattw of 
north and south, let me make this luggntlon, that after all Canada i. a 

"niUnr of winur. It !• »mtor in Ciiii»l. with fmtn (round .nd froin. 
"•«nnn .11 tk. w.y from Sidnty riiht out to within * ftw mil., of 
tje PmIHc co„t; It l> only on th. PmIAc out th.t w. h... not th. 
TOton (round In th. wintn tim.; m thit It comn to thii. th.t ChmhU 
h.'nT '?v.'' """'^ ""' *'"'• """ "*" "' <^"<^ '• «°"<»" '« «<nl« 

h! .,.„ '.". . "*" '" '"• "'"'" **•' '• "'" «" ""P*. " '• '" 

tw •umm.r, >nd it l< • quntlon not of wintor c ~. but • quMllon 

™1 !!1"""," '°"'""°'" "'**''«'''• *'»"'" "" • poolblllty of 
"op production or not. .nd if th. .«Mn for on. ,w,,n or .noth.r-lf 

JUm '"."'^ " '"'' •"""•"' "^ *'^ «"<»'«'' "■• W.tlon of th. 
conditio... of ,h. wmlCT do« not .rti.. It i. . quMllon« w« 
h.v, . ,u,ubl. .umm.r in th. north for nLing crop .nd If w. aui 
r.lM It th.r. th. nuMtion of hitltud. I. not .» of eon.idn.tloa. 
A. to th. «>t.nt I h.v. provon to you. that for m milM north of Ed- 
monton w. .r. within th. ranc of cllm.Uc condition, that .r. .uitidil* 

o .ucc...ful crop production. Ju.t m.y I work . Ilttl. on that pofait 
It !• it.n.r.lly .uppoiMl that b«;auH th. «)uator hu th. hott«t climate 
in the world and th. polM hav. th. coldut climat. that tompmtur. or 
cllmai, I. r.Kul.i.d by th. dl.Unc. from th. «,uator or from th. polM, 
th.t I. to .ay, that a. you go north you n«.w,rily K.t . condiUon of 
col(l.r cllm.u and a. you ko .outh you km w.rmm. L« u> uy that i. 
a mjitalw. that th«r. arc other condition, that novem climat. bMidw 

atitude, that altitude ha. a. much bNring on climatic condition, a. 
Utitude, beside, air current, lurface condition., teolodcal formation all 
have a bearing on climatic condition.. If laUtude sovemwl climatic con- 
dition, then the climate of Eaatem Canada would be far diffornt from 
what it i>. It may b« worth whil., to bring out my point thoroughly, to 
jmt .Ut. the condition, a. to comparativ. climate in MUtherly latitudM 
having ragard to Eaatem Canada. Th. wttlwl part of th. Province of 
OnUrio extend, from laUtud. 42 which i» th. uuthem part of th. 
County of Eiiex, to latitud. «, which i. about th. latitud. of Pambrok. 
m the County of Renfrew on the OtUw. River, that i>. the .attled por- 
tion of the Province of Ontario extmd. through four dogrM. of latitude 
Now, if you go over to Europe you will And that In the ume Utitude. 
an « climate .xiito, th.t latitude 42 in the County of 
E...X, Ontorio, i. the latitude of Rome, in luly; that i. in the 
latitude of the Itelian Riveri., and that Owen Sound, Ontario, ia south 
of Venice. Italy. You will find that Paris, in France, i. 100 mile, in 
further north latitude than th. City of Quebw. Now, that means jrf 
course, that there must be influence, other than thoM of latitude creat- 
ing the difference in climatic conditions, between the eastern coast of 
America and th. weetem co.8t of Europe. You do not And it strange that 
in the British Isles there is open ports, ther. i. nev.r froun ground; 
people plough all winter, and yet Edmonton, where w. hav. a long and 


' r , 

wvere winter, i> in the ume Istltiidt u Dublin and Livatpool. Th* 
conditions that make for mlldn climate on the Wcatam coaat of Europe 
alio make tor milder climate on the weatem coaat of America; a> the 
Gulf Stream in the Atlantic moderatei the climate of weatem Europe ao 
the Japaneae Current moderatea the climate of Weatem America, with 
the reault that there ii a vast body of warm water in the North Faciflc 
from which currenta of air blow eaiterly acroaa Britiah Columbia and 
Alberta and itill further into the interior of the country, carryinc a 
mildneei of climate entirely diitinct and different from that which pre- 
vaili on the Eastern coast of America, and as a consequence the agri- 
cultural possibilities of the Great North are not limited by the same 
lines of latitude that would limit thope possibilities in Eastern Canada. 
The conditions which govern climate on the weatem coast ot America, 
give us s northerly extension of agricultural poasibilitiea in thia weetem 
side of the continent that compare very favorably with the agricultural 
possibilities in the name latitudes on the continent of Europe. It may 
interest you to have the facts .<iet forth thnt latitude 49, which is the 
southern boundary of the prairie west and which I am sure many of you 
gentlemen from the East look upon, or have looked upon, aa being only 
next door to the Arctic — that north of the 49th parallel in Europe ia 
included the whole of the war area of France, the whole of Belgium and 
Holland, ftve-sixths of the Empire of Germany, the whole of Ssecho- 
Slavic, the northern part of old Au^ria, the whole of Poland, of Lith- 
uania, of Eathonia, of Finland, and possibly five-sixths of Russia, all 
north of the 49th parallel In Europe, perfectly good country so f ar ai 
olimat* and agricultural possibilities are conoenmed; and when you 
come over towardi the Pacific Coast equally good country with equal 
acrricultural poasibilitiee in this Province of Alberta east of the Rocky 
Mountains. Studying the reports of the Natural Rosources Department 
of Ottawa and studying the reports of the geologists, it ia a fact that 
the clay country, the country that intervenes between the Laurentiana 
on the east and the Rockies on the west extends northerly from Edmon- 
ton not less than 60O miles, extends north to the latitude of 61 and 62 
in the latitude of Great Slave Lake, extends beyond the boundary of 
the Province of Alberta, cutting Alberta into three parte; we will say, 
southern, central and northem. taking southern Alberta aa from lati- 
tude 49 to 51; Central Alberta from 62 to 5S. and northern Alberta 
from 55 to 00; these are the divisions. Now, Peaca River *s all north of 
56; the whole of our Peace River country is north of 56; it is that country 
which, I tell you, has given us our seed oats in this southern part of the 
country this last two years, which last year raised more wheat and other 
grains than the railroati could haul out; therefore, there is no question 
as to the agricultural possibilities of that Peace River country. Now, 
north of 55 on the continent of Europe is the whole of Scotland, parts 

of Englnd «»il Irehmd, th« whole of Denmark, the ProTinee» of Pom 
•mlB, EMt nd Wi»t PrauU in Geimiuiy. a large part of Poland, 
Uthoaaia, IsOionia. Finland and about half of Ruaiia. Surely, given 
equally good climatic conditione, given a coMlition of roil equal to that 
of the r«»t of this prairie country, sorely we have in that vant north 
tram latitude 66 to latitude 62, a posa-bility of development of production 
equal to that which carries in the continent of Europe tens of millions of 
paefie, surely w« an as good as those people in Europe; surely what 
they have done we can do; surely what they have done we are more than . 
doing so far as we have got yet, and we can say to you that when the 
possibilitin of the plain lying between Edmonton and Winnipeg are 
exhausted or exploited there remains still another area as large and as 
productive to be brought under control and cultivation by the energy and 
enterpriae of men, of Canadians, lies northward from Edmonton north 
to latitude 62. (Applause). Just as to the ana, the Emp'K of Austria- 
Hungary had a total ana of 240,000 squan miles, the gnat Empin of 
Germany with its forty or Hfty or sixty millions of people, and part of 
it, remember, the most fertile part of it north of latitude 6B, had an area 
of 208,000 squan miles. The disUnce from Edmonton to Winnipeg is 
800 miles and we will say that then is a belt of country 300 miles wide 
for the length of that 800 miles; if you multiply 800 by 800 the result 
is, I think, 240,000, equal to the Empin of Austria-Hungary with its 
over for^ millions of people at the outbnA of the war, carrying in its 
bosom Hungary, the greatest wheat-producing country of Europe, JBo- 
hemia as .veil, almost as great and valuable a country; they had forty 
milUons of people within that ana of less productive country than lies 
between here and Winnipeg acn for acn, producing in value bushel for 
bushel, and they had over forty millions of people. And froip Edknon- 
tM north an area 600 miles from north to south by 400 miles from east 
te west, or say 600 miles from north to south and 400 miles from east 
to west, and you have 200,000 squan miles; you have an ana un- 
exploited yet except a little part of the Peace River, an ana as gnat as 
tiiat of the whole German Empin, north of Edmonton, available to the 
energy and entepr»e of our people for its exploitation, an area that in 
Germany maintains sixty millions of people, who very nearly upset the 
wodd. I have been in Germany and I have been in our north country and 
I am free to say that while that north country is not all prairie, that 
while, as in the case of Eastern Canada, it will take in many instances 
labor and effort and investment to bring it under cultivation, I am hen 
to say that acn for acre it contains greater possibilities of production 
than does, or d=d, or ever can, the German Empin. (Applause). I will 
not detain you much longer, but when I have told you that we have 
agricultural possibilities up to latitude 62, that is the latitude of Fort 
Simpson on the Maekeniie, I do not want you to consider for « minute 


that tlmt is the end of our ponnlbilHIen. I want to tell yon that it Um 
bcKinninK of the Mackenzie river; the Mackeniie river It the oatlet of 
the Great Slave lake; ft begins north of latttnde 61 and extends for over 
800 miles to the Arctic ocean, a valley of clay country from 60 to 150 
miles in width. What the agricuHural posalblUtlea of that vaat area are 
I will not say, but I will tell you this, that although we have ndlroab 
extending only 300 miles north of Edmonton, those raflnads connect 
with the navigable waters of the Athabasca and the Mackentle so that 
whatever trade there Is or whatever trade there over will be In all that 
vast country from Edmonton to the Arctic ocean— and the diatance Is 
1500 miles direct— all that trade, by reason of the routes which ate 
travelled, comes to or starts from the city of Edmonton. I was in a boat- 
yard the other day here in the city of Edmonton and I found the pro- 
prietors building schooners to be sold to the Eskimo on the Arctic coast 
1600 miles from here. 1 met a gentleman on the street yesterday; he 
said: "You are going to apeak tomorrow at the Memorial Hall?" I said: 
•Yes, I hope so." He said: "Yon might Just mention that today I wa« 
putting up a couple of packages of goods for distribution and one of these 
packages is to go to Herschel Island and the other Is to go to a point 500 
miles further east on the Arctic coast Now some of you genUemen 
come from the city of Sherbrooke and some of you from the city of 
Montreal and some from the city of Toronto, and you reckon the afvas 
that are available to the trade of your respective cities, but I aak yon, do 
any of those cities take in a range of trade actually being transacted at 
the present time carrying the possibilities that I have sketched to you, 
an area, 1 say, or a radius of 1600 miles as !s the trade radius of this 
city of Edmonton? There are poasibilities in this country; it is a big 
country; it is a good country; there is room in it for everything that 
every man that is in it can do and there is room for many millions more 
to come and do the best they can as well. 

In regard to other resources of the North Country, I will not take 
the time to deal with them at any great length. I will just point out 
this, that however climate may affect agricuknral production, climate 
has no effect or latitude has nothing whatever to do with the exi&tnca 
of mineral deposits. The gold of the Yukon is one evidence on that 
point, so that when we speak of the possibilities of mineral production 
in the country to the North you can cut the idea of northern laUtode 
out of your mind so far as affecting any of thoae mineral conditiona. 

Geologically, this country lying between the Laurentians on the 
East and the Rockies on the West, does not carry the precious metals; 
the precious metals are to be found, so the geologist tells us, in the 
Laurentian formation or !n the formations which are connected with 
it; the formation that lies west of the Laurentian, between that and 
the Rockies, is the formation in which is carried the economic metals, 
not the precious but economic metals, including coal, oils, salt and 

! f. " > 

gypsnin and tmr and gas; thcH we know— we have evidei|ee these aw 
there; vt lee them; the Keologista tell u> that the fonnRtion «»rri<-« 
theie; we know they are there; m that while then are not the 
minerala which tend to ready and sudden exploitation, ai does gold 
and silver, they are still the minerals and the kind of minerals that 
lend themselves to the building up uf population; they are necessities 
of life; they are needed in the world today, and if we have m tint 
North country, as the geolojrists tell us we have, a vaster area suitable 
to the production of oil than Is found in any other area in the world, 
w» have reasonable grounds for believing that some time and some 
how that oil will be struck. We have enterprise at work now; we have 
struck oil in some places; but the point I 'want to Uke to this visiting 
delegation is this, that just as in the Southern part of AlberU we 
admittedly have the greatest coal ares, the greatest single coal area 
in the known worU. so in Northern Alberta we have, on the evidence 
of geology, the greatest possibility of oil bearing territory in the worM. 
that it, the greatest area of oil bearing territory io the world. 

I do not wish to impose on the consideration of an audience such 
as this. I have trespassed too long as far as I have gone now. I hope 
I have been able to place before your minds some appreciation of the 
possibilities that are at our doors, and I hope I have not created the 
impression that those possibilities are there simply to be picked up. 
This is a country of strenuous conditions, a country of strenuous climate 
and strenuous conditions; there is nothing for nothing in this country. 
These are possibilities that I have mentioned, but they are only pos- 
sibilities to those who have the energy and the enterprise and deter- 
mination to go after them and to turn them to account This is no 
country for picking up wealth; it is a country in which men have oppor- 
tunity but they must use the opportunity or they cannot succeed. It 
is certainly a pleasure to find, or to meet so many of the men who 
are doing things in Eastern Canada, and although Canada is so great 
in area and although it is geographically divided into many sectiona, 
it has struck me on many occasions that it is a remarkable fact that 
there is such a E'imilarity of thought and idea and aspiration and con- 
ditions generally from one end of Canada to the other, that we are a 
Canadian people and that we are in the way of building up a united 
country. Let me say to you Manufacturers that we, the people of this 
prairie West, whatever discussions may come up, we have no jealousy 
or antagonism to you or your success; as Canadians we are proud to 
see our country come to the front in manufacturing as in everything 
else; we have nothing but good wishes for you in the buccess of the 
e nterprises in which you are engaged. Do not have the idea that there 
is any jealousy or any disapprobation on the part of the people on the 
plains againat the Manufacturers of the East in their success, in the 

p;oper condi^t of their affairs. It is an old saying that the« is ahwaya 
a difforence of opinion between the buyer and the seller; what you have 
to mU we have to buy; to us it is always dear; to you, of course, I 
•oppose it is always cheap. There must always be a difference of 
opinion and a different point of view in regard to these matters in which 
you and we come together in trade and business transactions, but there 
is above and besides and over all that, the desire on tf.e t-irt of the 
people of this Western Canada to see built up • "'.at Canad.' that 
shall extend in ita greatness from one ocean to the other (Applaui.^). 
that shall be great in all iu parts, and while we stand strongly for 
what we consider to be our rights in all the adjustments of trade and 
commerce and industry and everything else, we find no fault with you 
because you do the same, but we srtill must stand for what we consider 
our rights and we certainly will. We welcome you here because you 
are Canadians, because yoa are big men and doing big things, and we 
think we are a little in that line ourselves, some of us (hear, hear). 
And we feel that there is a community of interests; we are glad that 
you have come here; we believe that you will go away with a fuller 
knowledge and a better appreciation of conditions as they are h«e, 
and that possiWy you and I will be able to do business on better terms, 
with better feeling, as a result of your visit, than we have ever been 
able to do before. (Applause). Thank you.